The method of sampling employed in this study in relation to the concepts of a quantitative research is through a survey. It is imperative for the study to clearly describe the population being targeted. There are no specific guidelines to follow in the sampling method, but relying on judgment and logic is highly considerable (psychology.ucdavis.edu n.d.). In addition, population is effectively infinite; therefore, identifying a finite population encompasses a specific methodology in which the probability of common characteristic can be efficiently quantified. In terms of selecting the participants for the survey, randomization is highly preferred because it reduces the probability of biases. In probability sampling, the target population encompasses a known chance being chosen as the participants.
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For this study, the method of selecting participants will rely on first contact basis. Meaning whomever, gets to participate first will be counted towards the target sample size. It is either voluntary or by chance of interest. The process of acquiring participants was done electronically wherein invitations to participate was sent out through convenient channels such as e-mail, Social Media, and forum websites. The invitation did not specify criteria for participation other than being a train commuter. To ensure efficiency and convenience, a predefined sample size of 200 participants was set for the survey. The samples share a common characteristic as train commuter, but the demographics vary according to gender, age, and professional background. This method also ensures elimination biases as a result of selective sampling.
It was mentioned earlier that the most convenient approach of selecting samples is through electronic method. For data collection strategies, the preferred method is through e-mail wherein the accomplished survey forms are retrieved through e-mail. The advantage of using this method is that large samples size can be obtained in a short span of time. Furthermore, e-mails can cover wider geographical area, less intrusive, and cost effective. However, relying on e-mails also has its setbacks such as lack of probing, long response time, low response rate, and the probability of another person filling it out instead of the intended participant. In order to counter the anticipation of the setbacks from occurring, preventive measures was employed such as stressing the importance of the survey and the benefit of the study towards the commuter satisfaction. Cost effectiveness and time constraints are the primary reasons for selecting online survey distribution.
On the other hand, the survey aims to obtain the specified target sample size. Therefore, the number of e-mails, Social media invites, and forum monitoring was set at 500 e-mails. The cover letter for the survey invites also stipulates a three-day period to return the survey to ensure that the responses were obtained in the earliest possible time. In the event that the survey responses did not return within the given time frame, a follow up e-mail was sent out as reminder for the participants to complete the survey form as soon as possible. Given that there are 500 invites sent out with a 40% return target, any responses returned over the 200 participants threshold were discarded were no longer included in the scores tabulation. Once the survey forms were returned examination of the responses were conducted and the incompletely accomplished forms were also disregarded. This strategy ensures that all factors indicated in the survey yields sufficient and accurate results.
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The type of data gathered for this study is important in determining the sensible method of analysis will be and negating the use of as a systematic analytical method would render the results invalid. Finding out the level of costumer satisfaction of train commuters in Klang Valley entails the need to employ the use of tools to determine mean, median or standard deviation of the data being analyzed (Garth 2008). This parametric requirement for analyzing the data sets is imperative in delivering the objectives of the study, which is customer satisfaction. Therefore, the appropriate tool for analysis would be SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The approach in analyzing data using SPSS depends on how the data was gathered. There are four areas of consideration that influence the choice of analysis namely data type (Nominal, Ordinal, Interval or Ratio), paired data, parametric or differences and correlations. In this study, differences and correlations matter in identifying satisfaction levels.
In terms of analysis, a descriptive statistics approach was preferred to lessen the complexity of interpretation and to present the findings in a manner that all sorts of reader can relate. The importance of using descriptive statistics is to summarize the collected data for clarity reasons. This means, the data ill be analyzed and interpreted based on the minimum and maximum means standard deviation. For example, assuming the satisfaction level of train commuters of KTM Berhad in Klang Valley would mean examining the mean and variances in the response scores of the participants. Thus, the measurement and results of the survey will be represented in numerical and graphical form. The numeral method in particular, conveys information pertaining to the average level of satisfaction that commuters have on KTM Berhad in Klang Valley.
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