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Stages of Policy Development
The policy development process adopts strategies including stakeholder involvement, public participation, cost-benefit analysis, balanced scorecard development, gap planning, and review of the literature.
Stakeholder participation is the process of enlisting the input of all involved parties to ensure that every aspect of the problem under investigation is examined and effective solutions are developed. Professionals and individuals knowledgeable on the subject are requested to provide critical input and recommendations on the best approaches to resolve challenges. In dealing with local economies, the international labor organization must ensure effective engagement of native stakeholders due to their profound understanding of issues affecting the community. An analysis of the labor market provides an in-depth perspective of the unique characteristics of the society, thus, enabling a more robust and representative policy framework. The characteristics of Zambia's workforce are rapidly changing in line with the accelerated development witnessed in the region. Thus, stakeholder involvement is invaluable in making decisions regarding the country's labor dynamics.
Public participation is another critical process in policymaking. Fundamentally, the affected population often represents the most probable prospect of developing effective solutions. Indigenous Zambians are best placed to identify the challenges in the local labor market and propose effective possible solutions to resolve them. Public participation is indispensable in the policymaking process as it involves developing strategies that directly affect the people's way of life.
A cost-benefit analysis is an elementary process that seeks to determine the net impact of the developed policies on the lives of the average Zambians. The concept is grounded on the reality that the projects will be centered on achieving specific deliverables, including the spread of HIV and AIDS and tuberculosis, and other issues that affect the country's working class. A cost-benefit analysis determines the extent to which the population stands to register positive outcomes to the sustainable development of quality labor.
A balanced scorecard is a policymaking strategic management framework that examines the project and aligns it with the primary objectives, measures, and initiatives. Objectives are the high-level goals of the international labor organization with regard to the Zambian human resource framework. Measures are specific milestones that guide the accomplishment of the set agenda, while initiatives are the key action programs set in place by ILO to streamline the process.
Under the balanced scorecard, the specific policies and procedures are examined. The stages of policy development that align with ILO's specifically in Zambia include need identification, assignment of responsibilities, information gathering, policy drafting, final approvals, process evaluation, implementation, monitoring, reporting, and review.
The identification of need can occur in two main stages, including anticipation and response to a specific labor problem. Anticipatory needs include consumer and worker protection initiatives that are developed to protect vulnerable groups from exploitation. Responsive policies endeavor to address a specific problem noted by the international labor organization. Delegation of responsibility involves apportioning duties to subcommittees, staff members, and working groups who have an in-depth understanding of their specific policy issue. Subsequently, information on the subject is gathered, which must be accurate and up-to-date to ensure that the response is suited to resolving the exact problem. A draught policy is developed and reviewed amongst stakeholders who provide the input after reviewing the available literature in affirming that the evidence presented and the response developed are consistent with the organization's strategic agenda. The policy is finalized and approved, with the process being evaluated for efficacy. Subsequently, it is implemented and monitored to determine its effectiveness in resolving the underlying problem.