ARCHAEOLOGY PAPER WRITING HELP


archaeology paper writing help

WHAT IS ARCHAEOLOGY?

Archaeology is a historical discipline that studies the past of humankind according to artifacts. When writing a good archaeology essay, one needs to know more about above-mentioned artifacts, which are instruments of production and, at the same time, material benefits produced by these instruments: buildings, weapons, decorations, dishes, pieces of art - anything and everything that is a result of human work activities. Unlike written sources, artifacts do not include direct facts regarding historical events, and historical conclusions come out of a scientific reconstruction. Considerable diversity of artifacts has caused a necessity of their examination by specialists-archaeologists who excavate archaeological monuments, explore and publish finds together with results of excavations, and reconstruct the past of humankind. Archaeology has special meaning for studying epochs, when there was no writing system at all, or for studying history of those nationalities, which did not possess written language in the late historical time.

Archaeological discipline vastly expanded space and time horizons of history. Very often, results of such expansion can be viewed in archaeology reports online. Written language exists around 5000 years, and the whole preceding period of humankind history became known only owing to the development of the discipline. Also, written sources such as Egyptian hieroglyphics, Linear Greek writing, Babylonian Wedge-writing for the first 2000 years of their existence were discovered by archaeologists. Archaeology is important for epochs, which witnessed the existence of written language, for studying ancient and medieval history, as data, obtained from researches of artifacts, essentially complete those data of written sources.

Despite all above-mentioned information, articles on Archaeology surmise not only the knowledge of facts on the subject, but also acquirement of format and structure regarding your future paper. For example, the first and most important step should be connected with choosing an appropriate topic among a wide variety of topics relating to a sphere of your assignment. Taking it into account, remember that essay on Archaeology, as any other kind of papers, needs attention to details and concentration. At the same time, archaeology articles online may turn out to be helpful during the process of collecting information and various sources. If you need some help writing term paper, do not hesitate and contact Pro-Papers.com.

AN ARCHEOLOGIST: FEATURES OF PROFESSION

In contrast to written sources, artifacts are 'silent.' They do not contain references to historical events, and many of them were created long before the appearance of written language. The task of an archaeologist is to form a vision of the past according to existing finds and knowledge taking into consideration location of these finds. To become a good expert in the given field, one should, in addition to the principal activity, know how to compose an advantageous archaeology cover letter. A fragment of a jug or knife handle can suggest a little. These objects cannot be considered out of a context, that is in isolation from place, environment, depth of occurrence, etc. An archaeologist looks for proofs of the past, and then examines it in a lab, classifies, and restores it if needed.

When writing archaeology reports, it is worthy to know that the science uses methods of other disciplines as well: humanities (ethnography, anthropology, linguistics) and natural sciences (physics, chemistry, botany, geography, and pedology). For instance, to define the time of creation or usage of an object, they take account of soil (every level of soil refers to a particular time period) employing stratigraphical, comparative-typological, dendrochronological and other approaches.

An archaeologist does not have the right to dream. All his/her conclusions should be based on clear proofs and, perhaps, reflected in an archaeology article. Usually, archaeologists specialize in specific regions or historical periods. For example, a scientist may become an expert in the field of lithic age epoch in Central Asia if, from year to year, he/she studies stands of the Stone Age people situated there.

According to methods of search, archeology (A.) can be divided into:

  • field A., which means the search of artifacts with the help of excavations on land
  • maritime A., that is the underwater search
  • experimental A., which is engaged in reconditioning objects of the past (instruments of labor, weapons, etc.).

During field excavations, an archeologist exploits pick hammer and spade, magnifier and brush, knife and syringe; and, at the same time, he/she may use theodolite when planning excavations, camera to document finds, and other technical possibilities. To work underwater, it is important to be able to dive and use devices for underwater excavations.

Still, during his/her expedition, an archaeologist needs to describe every found object in details in the form of archaeology review - it is necessary for further analysis. Sometimes, scientists even conduct primary restoration of an artifact, because the sunshine and fresh air can destroy an ancient adornment.

Experimental archaeology witnesses restoration of an object with the usage of materials and technologies typical for an epoch under consideration. In the course of experiment, scientists try to imitate the way of ancient people life. The former cope with trades and restore forgotten technologies. When restoring a forgotten technology, an archaeologist relies on data of excavations; he/she frames hypotheses and conducts experiments. The job of an archeologist is not only intensive intellectual labor; very often, it requires physical power and asceticism. Although, for a true archeologist, archeological findings are the source of very strong emotions.

To be an archaeologist, one should possess knowledge on History; it is especially important to possess knowledge on an epoch examined and information in neighboring fields: scientific restoration, paleopedology, paleogeography, etc. Often, archaeologists have to study disciplines that do not directly refer to archaeology: anthropology, ethnography, numismatics, textual criticism, heraldry, physics, chemistry, and statistics. Moreover, skills of a land-surveyor and topographer are also needed. When working in the mountains or underwater, an archaeologist should possess skills of a rock climber and a diver; these skills demand a special training.

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8 MOST CONSIDERABLE ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN THE WORLD

The following facts about 8 archaeological finds may turn out to be very helpful when writing your archaeology research paper.

  • Rosetta stone is a monument of epigraph culture (196 BC) that represents stone (granodiorite) with a royal decree of Egyptian king Ptolemy V, written in Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Greek language. The stone was found near village Rashid (Rosetta in European languages) on July 15, 1799, by French field engineers during Egyptian expedition of Napoleon. Owing to Rosetta stone, it became possible to cope with deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs; French Egyptologist Jean-Francois Champollion fulfilled this task in 1822. The stone is kept in the British Museum, London.
  • The Venus de Milo is a famous ancient Greek statue of the late Hellenism period (approximately 100 or 130 BC). The statue was found in 1820 by a Greek peasant on his field, Milos Island. Hands of the statue were not found. This outstanding masterpiece was bought by French ambassador and, in 1821, presented as a gift to the King Louis XVIII. The Venus de Milo statue became the most well-known and recognized symbol of beauty of antique art; nowadays, it is situated in the Louvre, Paris.
  • Angkor Wat is a grandiose memorial of Cambodia Buddhist art, part of the complex of Hindu and Buddhist temples of IX-XIII centuries known under the common title Angkor. It is located near Angkor Thom - an ancient capital of nationality Khmers on north of the country. French traveler Henri Mouhot discovered this memorial on January 2, 1861. Afterwards, the whole epoch in history of Cambodia was named after Angkor Wat. Towers of Angkor have turned into the symbol of Cambodia and now, they decorate a national flag.
  • Troy is an ancient town on the northwest of peninsula Asia Minor (Turkey) near the channel Dardanelles. Troy was famous according to poems "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey" by Homer, and "Aeneid" by Virgil. The town was discovered in the 1870s by German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann, who had initiated excavations in the district of Hisarlik Hill. As a result of excavations, there had been discovered 46 cultural layers, which were divided into several periods - from Troy I to Troy IX. Troy I dates back to 3200 - 2600 BC; it is the most old time period of Troy. It is thought out to be that Homeric Troy is Troy VI (1900 - 1300 BC).
  • Mycenae is an age-old town in Argos (southern Greece), large center of Aegean culture. It was destroyed approximately in 1200 BC. During excavations, in 1874 - 1876, organized by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, pit tombs were found. These tombs contained treasures: gold, silver, and bronze items, goblets, swords, rings, various gold disks and plates with coinage. Outside the town, archaeologists found nine domical tombs and a great number of chamber tombs.
  • The Minoan civilization was a highly developed culture of the Bronze Age on the island Kriti (III - II millennium BC). This civilization was discovered by English archaeologist Arthur Evans and named after a legendary king Minos. In consequence of excavations, 1900 - the 1930s, there were discovered urban buildings, palatial constructions, and necropolises. Rooms of Knossos palace were decorated with rich murals. Also, Arthur Evans created periodization of the Minoan civilization having divided it into early, middle, and late periods.
  • Machu Picchu is a fortress of the Incas, town-sanctuary in Peru, prehistoric monument aslope the mountain in Urubamba. The fortress was founded in 1440 and existed until 1532. In 1911, the town was discovered by American historian Hiram Bingham from Yale University. Picturesque ruins of Machu Picchu are the best example of stone building of the late Incan period. The memorial includes 200 buildings and separate constructions, the complex of temples, private premises, and defensive walls from block stones. In 1983, Machu Picchu was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list, and in 2007, it was added to the list of New 7 Wonders of the World.
  • Tutankhamun's burial chamber was discovered on November 4, 1922, by British archaeologist Howard Carter in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor, Egypt. The mummy itself is buried in three sarcophagi placed inside each other, one of which is made of gold. Around the mummified body, there were 143 gold cultic objects. The most recognizable treasure from Tutankhamun's burial chamber is a burial mask of the king. The main part of treasures is exhibited in Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Every of these topics can be considered when working on archaeology thesis paper.

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