June 4, 2018
Students often write papers on problems of public importance. This makes them learn to reflect, to find ways out of difficult situations, to justify the proposed strategies. In particular, cause and effect of drinking and driving essays are a frequent task at schools and universities. Thanks to such assignments, young people form a sense of responsibility for own health and the safety of others, the desire to preserve the social order. In this article, we will tell you how to write an excellent work on this topic if you are not ready to give up and buy custom essays online.
Description of the problem for drinking and driving essays
In an ideal world, only sober, not tired, happy people are allowed to drive a car. But alas, there are always self-confident drivers for whom a glass of wine or beer is not a reason for a walk or taxi ordering.
Stress in an “Effects of drinking and driving” essay that more and more often, on TV screens and on the Internet, we can see reports from the scene of an accident caused by a drunk motorist. Particularly impressive are the stories when innocent people are killed or injured. Journalists may show a "new hero" who barely stands on his feet and, besides, tries to aggressively prove own rightness. The patience of traffic police officers who have to register incidents at such moments can be only envied.
Very often the phrase “the drunken driver is a potential criminal” sounds in the media. In any way, this opinion cannot be called correct. Moreover: it is fundamentally wrong. The statement of a normal sober-minded person should sound like this: "Sitting behind the wheel in a drunken state is already a crime!" You may use it as a central drunk driving essay thesis.
Currently, the authorities of different states discuss the tightening liability for drunk driving. There are many reasons for such measures. The culture of behavior on the road is deteriorating. Many people consider it to be an adventure to drive intoxicated and, having reached the house, to fall out of their vehicle to the home porch. Of course, such a behavior is unacceptable.
Another worrying point: those who have been punished for drunk driving often get behind the wheel in the same state again, and the absence of a driver's license does not bother them at all.
Therefore, it may be stated in a drunk driving essay conclusion that, for a certain category of people, drunkenness at the wheel gradually becomes the norm. Therefore, measures to combat such violations should be toughened as much as possible, since, it is already a question of the established line of behavior which cannot be changed without harsh actions (except rare cases).
At present, it has become difficult to navigate on the road even for sober and disciplined drivers with a stable psyche and many years of driving experience. In such conditions, a car driven by a drunken person increases the probability of the occurrence of a traffic accident many times. And his unpredictable behavior can often bring any actions of other road users, taken in order to avoid an accident to nothing. Therefore, to say that drinking at the wheel is evil means to say nothing.
Driving is always a big responsibility and a certain risk. Everyone, of course, has the right to risk his life. But if there is such a desire, it's impermissible to expose others to danger.
Explain in an “Problems with drinking and driving” essay that a quick reaction to everything that happens on the road is extremely important. Alcohol slows down the reaction. Another danger is that it reduces the instinct of self-preservation. Drunk drivers exceed speed on the road, do not pay attention to traffic lights and signs. Often such "entertainment" ends in tears.
Self-esteem of a drunkard is rarely objective. Often people find themselves unable to adequately assess the degree of intoxication and overestimate own capabilities. If you know for sure that you cannot do without alcohol in a particular situation, it is better not to drive but to take a taxi or use public transport.
Nevertheless, it’s worth mentioning in a drinking and driving research paper that the situation is not entirely hopeless. For example, the service "sober driver" has appeared in many countries. It means that, if a person came to a cafe and drank alcohol there, he can call a driver who will bring the client home in his own car and park the vehicle where necessary.
The availability of such a service and its relevance mean that more and more people are aware of the danger of driving a car in a drunken state. It is a positive trend. In addition, it may be stressed in a teenage drunk driving essay that there are many young people who completely reject alcohol. Sports and healthy nutrition are in vogue today. Naturally, fans of a healthy lifestyle will never sit behind the wheel in a drunken state. And it cannot but rejoice.
Maximum alcohol level in different countries
There are two methods for determining the level of alcohol in the human body which are usually described in essays on drunk driving: BrAC and BAC. The first, BrAC (breath alcohol content) shows the level of alcohol in the exhaled air. BAC means “blood alcohol content”. Both indicators are measured in milligrams of ethyl alcohol per liter of air or blood. The BAC technique is more common in the world. It was used as the basis of the rating provided below.
- 0 mg/l. Zero level of alcohol, or, as it is also called, "zero tolerance" is valid in many countries of the world. For example, all drivers in Brazil and Egypt should be absolutely sober when they get behind the wheel. Even in the Czech Republic, which is famous for its excellent beer, zero indicator is used. In the countries where alcohol level is slightly higher (Germany, Italy, Thailand, Turkey and Australia), there is still a zero threshold for special categories of drivers: newcomers with less than 2-3 years of driving experience, taxi drivers, professional drivers of trucks and buses.
- Alcohol level of 0.2 mg/l corresponds to one glass of wine (150 ml). It is officially authorized in China. The driver will not be punished for such a dose.
- In other words, dose 0.3 mg/l is equal to a glass of liqueur (50 ml), a glass of whiskey (50 ml) or a 0.5-liter bottle of beer. The maximum blood alcohol level of 0.3 mg/l is allowed in Belarus, Russia, and Japan.
- Dose 0.5 mg/l is equal to two bottles of beer or 100 grams of vodka. With such quantity of consumed alcohol, it is allowed to drive in Germany, France, Italy, Thailand, Turkey, Greece, Spain and Australia.
- 0.8 mg/l is the world's highest authorized level of alcohol in the blood fixed by law. It is used in the USA. Americans can drink a bottle of wine (750 ml) and calmly sit behind the wheel.
Comparison of penalties for drunk driving essay
You can also provide information about penalties in different countries of the world (data of 2017) in your drinking and driving essay research paper:
- Thailand. In the Asian kingdom, drunken drivers are fined 1,000 baht (about $30). In addition, they can be sentenced to imprisonment for up to 3 months.
- France. For driving in a state of intoxication (above 0.5 mg/l), French may get a fine of 135 euro. In addition, 6 points will be deducted (a point system is used in the country). If the driver spends 12 points within two years, he is deprived of drivers' license. If the alcohol content in the blood is more than 0.8 mg/l, the punishment increases dramatically: a fine of 4,500 euro, deprivation of a driver's license for three years and up to two years in prison.
- Egypt. There is a fine of 500-3000 Egyptian pounds ($ 28-168) for drunk driving in the country of the pharaohs. In addition, by court order, citizens can be deprived of driving license or imprisoned.
- Drunken Greeks get a fine of 200 euro. Those persons who exceeded the norm of 0.8 mg/l pay 700 euro and are deprived of driving license for 3 months. If more than 1.1 mg/l is found in the blood, the offender is fined 2,000 euro and deprived of driving license for six months, gets 2 months of imprisonment.
- In China, drunk drivers are fined for 1,000-2,000 yuan ($ 140-280) and deprived of driving license for six months. Violators who have over 0.8 mg/l of alcohol in their blood are deprived of driving license for 5 years and imprisoned for up to 3 years. But the Chinese Themis is especially merciless in relation to drunk drivers who caused the accidents with human victims. By court order, they can be sentenced to death.
- Brazil. The carnival country fights drunkenness with fines of 300-1200 Brazilian reais ($ 80-320) and deprivation of driving license for a year. The curious fact which may be emphasized in a DUI essay is that the zero limit level of alcohol is generally accepted in the country, but citizens are fined when the alcohol content in the blood is above 0.2 mg/l. The reason is the permissible error of the measuring equipment.
- Australia. For driving under the influence of alcohol, a fine of AUD$600 or $440 is prescribed. Persons who have more than 0.8 mg/l of alcohol in blood are deprived of drivers’ license for six months and must install ignition interlock device for 5 years (to start the engine, it's necessary to breathe into a tube to prove own sobriety). In addition, the court may decide on confiscation of the violator's car.
- In Russia, drunk drivers are punished with a fine of 30,000 rubles ($ 475) and deprivation of a driver's license for 1.5-2 years.
- Turkey punishes drunk drivers with a fine of TL 700-2000 ($ 140-400) and deprives them of driving license for six months.
- Germany. The largest automobile country in Europe punishes drivers with high blood alcohol content with a fine of 500 euro and deprivation of driving license for a year. Persons with any alcohol content other than zero are perceived as the potential causer of an accident. In Germany, it is also forbidden to sit behind the wheel of a bicycle in a drunken state. The same punishments are provided for cyclists as for motorists.
- Spain. On the Iberian Peninsula, a fine of 500 euro is applied to persons driving under the influence of an alcohol. In case of significant excess of the norm (over 1.2 mg/l) they are deprived of the driving license for 12 months and can be imprisoned for up to six months.
- In Belarus, the fine ranges from 35,000 to 70,000 rubles ($ 550-1100). Also, offenders are deprived of a driver's license for three years.
- In sunny Italy, one of the highest fines in the world is prescribed - from 500 to 2000 euro. Payment is added to the deprivation of driving license for 3-6 months. Particularly guilty offenders are fined for 1500-6000 euro, deprived of driving license for up to two years. Their car may be confiscated.
- Japan. Mention in a “Ways to prevent drunk driving” essay that the Land of the Rising Sun is the world leader in the severity of monetary punishment. The driver faces a fine of 1 million Japanese yen (about $ 9000), deprivation of driving license for 5 years and a prison sentence of up to 5 years. In addition, all passengers who were in the car or bus at the time of the violation are also fined. The amount of fines for passengers can reach $ 2800. An exception is not made even for city and tourist buses.
It may be stressed in a research paper on drunk driving that America, perhaps, has the most humane norms for the permissible alcohol content in the blood. The following rules work here:
- If the driver refuses to pass the test for alcohol, he is automatically deprived of the driving license for 1 year. A fine for the first offense is $ 500, for the second - $ 750.
- The first arrest in a drunken state: a fine of $ 500-1000 and/or up to 1 year in prison; a driver's license can be withdrawn for a period of 6 months.
- The second arrest during 10 years from the first arrest in a drunken state: a fine of $ 1,000-5,000, a minimum of 10 days in jail plus 60 days of community service. According to the decision of the judge, the prison term can be extended for any period up to 7 years. Driver's license is withdrawn for a period of 1 year, and after its restoration, ignition interlock device is installed in the car at the driver's expense.
- The third arrest in a drunken state: a fine of $ 2,000-10,000, a minimum of 10 days in prison (by court order - up to 7 years). The driving license is withdrawn for a period of 1 year. An ignition interlock device is installed.
- If there was a child under 15 years old in a car with a drunk driver, the offender can receive a prison term of up to 4 years and pay a fine of $ 5,000. Such a person is registered in the juvenile police.
Material for “US law & drunk driving” research paper
It may be written in a drinking and driving essay introduction that the first law restricting the movement of intoxicated drivers in the US was adopted in New Jersey. 1906 is the year of the beginning of the struggle against this harmful phenomenon. Violators had to pay a monetary compensation of $ 500. They could also be imprisoned for 60 days.
Initially, police officers were not guided by any specific alcohol limit. The first official BAC threshold established in New York in 1941 was 0.15%. It was specified in the revised version of the act of 1910.
In 1938, the Committee to Study Problems of Motor Vehicle Accidents, created by the American Medical Association, began to function. At the same moment, the Committee on Tests for Intoxication was established by the National Safety Council.
Significant progress of legislation in the field of drunk driving began in the 1970-1990s. The cause was the influence of special organizations formed at that time. You can write a “Students Against Destructive Decisions” or a “Mothers Against Drunk Driving” essay and analyze their activities.
Laws have become tougher for drivers whose age was less than 21 years. They were forbidden to get behind the wheel with BAC more than 0.01-0.02% (practically zero tolerance). Despite the fact that citizens in Puerto Rico could buy alcohol at the age of 18, these measures were taken there too.
In 2013, all 50 states were called to reduce the alcohol limit from 0.08% to 0.05%. This initiative of the National Transportation Safety Board is connected with the fact that the statistics of drunken accidents has reached 1/3 of all deaths on the road, which attracted increased attention to the problem. Mention this fact in a “Why not to drink and drive?” essay. The issue of reducing the BAC limit caused a storm of discussions on the Internet. Many bloggers encouraged their subscribers to support the changes.
At the federal level, the authorities decided that drivers working on commercial vehicles should not exceed a dose of 0.04%. Even if the concentration of alcohol in the blood is less than 0.04% but more than 0.02%, a person should be removed from duty for 24 hours.
In some states, there is a concept of partial ability to drive (partial impairment). This usually means a level of alcohol between 0.05% and 0.08%.
In 2016, the Supreme Court ruled that breath and blood tests for alcohol content can be considered as a search prescribed by the Fourth Amendment. Checking the breath can be carried out by traffic police officers without a special warrant. The situation is different with the blood test because the skin is damaged. The authorities try to persuade the police to use safer means.
In Arizona, there are such concepts as Extreme DUI - 0.15% and Super Extreme DUI - 0.20%. In California, persons convicted of drunk driving and being on the probation should not exceed the norm of 0.01%. There are many other examples when local authorities modify common standards.
It may be emphasized in essays on drinking and driving that a problem of the discrepancy of laws exists in the United States. Local authorities interpret the same concepts in different ways. For example, the terms "driving" and "actual physical control" have a different meaning. In the first case, we always mean moving, and in the second, the vehicle can remain at one spot, but the driver carries out certain manipulations (even if it is just an activation of the headlights). When comparing the laws of different states, it is extremely important to take into account such subtleties.
Logically, we understand that a fine should be levied only on a person who is drunk while moving on the road and thereby creates a threat of a car accident. But without a clear formulation in the law, accusations can be attributed even to those people who simply sit in a vehicle. You can describe the problem of interpreting the laws in your drinking and driving persuasive essay, consider those situations when the penalties are really justified and when they have no real sense.
Local legislation largely influences the severity of penalties. For example, residents of Ohio are forced to spend 3 days in prison. However, this measure can be replaced with visits to a special program aimed at alcohol education of violators.
Unlike many other countries, in the US, there is a clear difference between harmless drunk driving and causing damage to others. If a person simply behaved unworthily but did not break the welfare of people surrounding him, the punishment is more likely to seem to a precautionary measure. But it should be stressed in a research paper on drinking and driving that the authorities are really merciless to those who committed a car accident or crippled own compatriots.
Citizens of the state of Washington can get a kind of an amnesty after passing a special correctional program. Punishment is not always enough to make people realize their mistakes and stop drinking behind the wheel. Some persons really do such things because of recklessness. But there are those who suffer from severe forms of alcohol dependence. Having paid a fine once, they just wait for the moment when it's possible to sit behind the wheel and make the same mistakes.
Therefore, in such cases, the court makes concessions and allows drivers to undergo a rehabilitation program. Explain in a “Drivers Ed” research paper that this gives a greater guarantee that dangerous situations will not happen again. If the violator does not manage to pass the program, he loses the privileges and takes full responsibility. In addition, offenders can enjoy deferments of prosecution a limited number of times.
Measures to prevent drunk driving
In some cases, corrective programs involve wearing special devices that detect the level of alcohol in the blood. Write in a “How to prevent drunk driving?” essay that these measures are aimed at helping a person to completely abandon addiction.
Violators hope that their actions will stay unnoticed. But it is rather difficult if the cars are “adorned” with special license plates (which were first introduced in Ohio). Usually, they are used by convicted offenders who are allowed to drive in special cases, for example, for labor purposes. In 2004, this shameful label became mandatory for all violators.
Typically, these plates are yellow with red text. In Minnesota, white plates with black or blue text are used. Such a mark is received by drivers who violated the rules at least 2 times in 5 years, exceeded the blood alcohol level two times or had a child in the car at the time of arrest.
It’s worth mentioning in an argumentative essay on drunk driving that the introduction of the ignition interlock devices was also a reasonable measure. In most cases, they are adjusted to a minimum level (zero tolerance). About half of the US states require the installation of these devices at the first violation.
Such requirements can be considered as punishment and, at the same time, as a precaution. After all, a drunken person simply cannot use a car. External control is especially important for people with alcohol dependence who do not control own actions.
Many drivers, however, complain that these devices are imperfect and malfunctions occur quite often. For example, a sober person can get an unsatisfactory result due to a low-quality electronic system. Then the error is perceived as his offense. Also, an irritating factor is that the indications should be updated with a periodicity of about half an hour. If the driver forgets to re-check own state, his negligence is regarded as a violation.
In different states, various punishments for improper use of the device are practiced. Usually, this is fine. Some jurisdictions view such actions as a criminal offense.
Proposals were made regarding the installation of ignition interlock devices on all new cars. However, in a drinking and driving argumentative essay, this initiative may be considered rather as a theory than a reasonable practical step. Obstacles are associated with the inconvenience of using devices, their inaccuracy and the nonconformity of many modern autos to the required standards.
In some states, a car can be confiscated under special conditions. For example, this practice is common in California.
Stoppage and detention
The arrest procedure may vary from state to state. However, it should be emphasized in essays about drunk driving that the general concept always remains the same. First, the policeman should have a reasonable suspicion. Officers cannot exceed their powers and blame citizens for no apparent reason. They are guided by an official protocol with clearly prescribed phases.
Noticing the strange behavior on the road, the policeman stops the car, approaches it and asks questions. The external signs and behavior of the driver are assessed. Important signals are alcohol smell from the mouth, inarticulate speech, redness of the skin, clouded eyes, slowing of reactions and thinking, excessive aggression or arrogance, presence of open bottles with alcohol.
If the officer notices some of these signs and thinks that the driver may be drunk, he invites him to get out of the car and undergo a quick test for alcohol content in the blood or exhaled air. The information received may serve as a basis for a further detention.
It is important to note in a drinking while driving essay that stoppage of the motorist who performs all traffic rules and does not cause any suspicion may fall under the exclusionary rule which protects citizens from unreasonable searches. The reason for stopping can be an uneven trajectory of movement, speeding, driving on the sidewalk, etc. Of course, the test for the presence of alcohol in the body of the driver is used if he became a participant in the accident.
There are roadblocks (control points of sobriety) where the driver may be stopped. An adequate basis for suspicion is anonymous messages from citizens who saw an uncontrollable vehicle. However, before asking the driver to leave the car, the officer must make sure that motorist drives inadvertently.
Also, it’s worth listing in a drunk driving persuasive essay the following factors of increased attention:
- transition to a less suitable traffic roadway,
- slow movement,
- causeless stop in the middle of the road,
- short distance from other vehicles,
- the contact of tires with road markings,
- random increase and decrease in speed,
- driving on the lane of opposite movement,
- inappropriate use of sound and light signals,
- sharp turns.
The simplest version of the development of events after the driver's stop is his voluntary confession. However, not all citizens agree to this step. Some try to deceive the officers, although they know perfectly well that special check will follow further. The police use field tests that allow to determine the probability of intoxication right on the spot. The driver can be asked to perform various actions, for example, to put a finger on the nose or to stand on one leg.
However, you may stress in drinking and driving research papers that such a check is only 65-68% reliable. People can fail the test due to traumas, illnesses, old age, low or too large body weight. Therefore, field tests should be considered as a tool for collecting additional information about the behavior of the driver and not the basis for arrest. There were cases when the police accused absolutely sober people in intoxication. Of course, this practice cannot be considered expedient.
The most popular types of field tests are checking the reaction of the eyes to a moving object, walking along a straight line and turning, standing on one leg. Also, US citizens can be asked to tell the alphabet (does everyone remember it?) or to count own fingers.
The Preliminary breath test and screening are much more reliable. Their indications can serve as a real reason for arrest. In different states, devices of various level of complexity are used: both inexpensive simple versions and large but more accurate, reliable instruments.
Such a check is mandatory. Refusing to pass it, driver risks to worsen own reputation. A Negative decision may adversely affect the course of a further trial. It is quite obvious that an innocent person would not hide his sobriety. The desire to avoid the law increases the blame for its violation.
After the arrest, the driver must undergo a chemical test of breathing, blood and sometimes urine. Data on breathing is available immediately. In other cases, laboratory work is required. According to the law, the refusal to take a breath test is a subject to criminal liability. However, the conditions are slightly softer for a blood test. To demand passage of such check, the police should have a warrant, as damage to body tissues is an extreme measure.
If the test shows that the alcohol level is less than 0.08%, the driver is released without any penalties. However, sometimes accusations are based on the signs of inadequate driving that were noticed by the officer. The results of the field tests also can play an important role.
Drunk drivers remain in custody until they are considered sufficiently sober to be released on bail. The date of the trial is prescribed. If the bail has not been provided or there is no own recognizance of the driver, he remains in custody until charges are set forth.
Useful tips for writing a perfect driving under the influence essay
The above information should help you delve into the topic. However, a chaotic retelling of generally known data will not be enough to create a high-quality academic paper. It is necessary to observe a number of important rules. Drinking and driving essay free examples are accessible on the Internet. Download several versions to get acquainted with the basic features of the genre. Also, take into account the recommendations outlined below.
The volume of the essay is usually small. Do not write an extended dissertation. The teachers do not like to spend time checking the works in which there are too many superfluous facts.
For clarity, you can divide the drunk driving essay outline into several parts:
- Formulation of the problem.
- Comment on the problem.
- Author's position.
- Theses and arguments.
Take into account the following tips:
- The essay should be written without errors. But do not try to create the perfect paper at the first attempt - use drafts. Even experienced writers turn to this tool, so you do not have to feel any embarrassment. In the first version, it is enough to draw up a drinking and driving essay outline listing the theses and their argumentation. Then you can work on the style of the text and make it readable.
- Before starting to work, read selected sources of information several times. Write out the ideas that seem most interesting to you. There can be quite a lot of them. But preparation is not a stage when you should be afraid of excess data. On the contrary, it is necessary to create a field for choice.
- If you find it difficult to determine the problem of the essay, trace the position of authors who wrote papers on similar topics. Think whether you agree with them, whether you see other ways out of the situation under discussion.
- If your attention was attracted by several drunk driving essay topics, determine the most important of them and consider it in detail. It is not recommended to concentrate on several issues that do not have any relationship to each other. The compact format of the essay is not suitable for multitasking research. And if you can’t choose one you like, you can search for a list of argumentative essay topics.
- Formulating a comment on the problem, pay attention to the style of the text. It is allowed to use emotional wordings which help the reader to determine the author's position. Of course, the presence of statistical information and citations from legislative acts will only strengthen the argumentation. However, it is very important for a writer to believe in the idea which he conveys to the audience. It is necessary to convince people not only logically but also through feelings.
- Arguments should be relevant and correct, subordinate to the general idea of the text. Do not boast with erudition if this does not help to prove the central thesis.
- Arguments based on publicistic sources are a big plus if an author can accurately specify the name of the source (magazine, newspaper, other media).
- Make a short but capacious drinking and driving essay conclusion. Reread the work and determine whether the logical links between the paragraphs are preserved, whether there are any mistakes (orthographic, punctuation, stylistic). Rewrite the essay to the clean copy with a neat handwriting and check it again.
Another important advice: practice is necessary to write a good essay that deserves a high grade. Study classical literature and media to accumulate reading and writing experience. You will learn to express own opinion competently, to choose weighty arguments.
Over time, it will be obvious that essay writing is not only easy but also an incredibly enjoyable process. After all, you have a unique opportunity to express your thoughts, to share own outlook with surrounding people, perhaps, even to change the world in which we all live. Enjoy the freedom of creativity and get high grades. Good luck!