You may write in an essay on population definition that, in the most primitive sense, this concept means a group of people living on a certain territory. The size and composition of the population are among the largest areas of statistical research. They play an important role in the system of indicators for the planned development of the economy, culture, improving people's material well-being, are used to assess the level of achieved economic growth, for the current and future planning of industrial, agricultural production, labor, etc.
Writing an “Importance of population education” essay, you’ll have to describe the basic scientific directions in this sphere. The statistics is one of the most important. It is focused on the patterns of quantitative changes in the population. In accordance with this task, it studies the size, composition, and movement of the population, causes and factors of population change on various grounds (sex, age, social status, education), its migration, fertility, mortality, life expectancy.
A specific feature of statistics is that in all cases its data refer to large groups. Characteristics of individual phenomena come to the attention only as a basis for obtaining summary characteristics.
Reliable information support is needed to monitor demographic processes and evaluate the effectiveness of policy measures in this sphere. The main sources of information on the number and composition of the population are censuses and current population records.
Explain in an essay on population that census is a scientifically organized collection of information in order to obtain data on the number, composition, and distribution of the population. It has a number of features:
The census program includes demographics (sex, date, and place of birth, marital status, etc.), economic (occupation, industry and type of economic activity, source of means of subsistence, etc.), educational (characteristics of general or professional education: the number of years of study or level of education, visits to an educational institution, etc.), as well as ethnic (nationality, native and spoken languages, etc.) features. The composition of households and families is also taken into account.
As a rule, the census is conducted once in 10 years during the periods when the population is mostly sedentary (in autumn or winter). All information received during the census is attributed to a certain date and a certain time - the time of registration.
Mention in your population control essay that in the intervals between the censuses, the so-called micro-censuses are carried out. These are selective surveys of socio-demographic processes on the national and individual levels. In addition to obtaining usual information about the composition of the population, micro-censuses are oriented toward studying the formation of a family, changes in the birth rate, causes of migration, and housing conditions.
There are two categories of population that are taken into account in the framework of the census:
In addition to specially organized surveys, such as censuses and micro-censuses, information on demographic processes can be obtained from the data on the facts of births, deaths and migration movements as they arise.
If you want to compose a scientific research of a more complex level than a paper on statistics, you can write something like a population genetics essay. However, such topics are suitable only for students of a narrow profile. If your future specialty is far from this field, the inability to operate with complex terms can reveal an amateur in you.
You may write in a global population essay that scientists from a nonprofit organization in Washington counted the number of people who lived on our planet during the whole of human history. Employees of the organization appealed to demographers who submitted a "semi-scientific" method of counting. It's not surprising. After all, the results of the study cannot be accurate for a trivial reason: no one has conducted censuses of ancient people. Demographic data for 99% of the considered period are completely absent.
The researchers needed to take into account how long people lived on Earth, to determine the average size of the planet's population in various eras. The moment of the appearance of Homo sapiens (50 000 BC) was used as the starting point.
Then, based on fertility rates and life expectancy at different times, experts calculated how many people lived on the planet. They took into account the constant level of population growth that completely excludes the influence of such factors as hunger and climate change.
Inform the readers of an essay on the history of population growth that, according to experts, 5 million people lived on Earth in 5000 BC, in 1 AD - 300 million, while the number of births was 80 per 1,000 people. Since that time, the birth rate has begun to fall, but the population has grown due to an increase in life expectancy. In 1650, the number of people reached 0.5 billion, and after 200 years, it was already 1.265 billion. At the beginning of the 20th century, the world population was 1.656 billion, in 1950 - 2.516 billion, in 1995 - 5.76 billion. And recently, the 7-billionth was born.
It is curious that as the demographers of the organization believe, by 1 BC, nearly 46 billion people were born and died on our planet. In general, more than 107 billion representatives of Homo sapiens were born in the history of mankind. Thus, 6.5% of all people born in the history of mankind live on Earth today.
Considering world population essay topics, you also may write that, until the 1970s, the world's population increased according to the rule of hyperbolic growth. Since 1990, there has been a slowdown in the absolute growth rates of the world population. But according to demographic studies, the population continues to increase rapidly (in 2002, by 74 million), although the relative growth in the 2000s was almost halved compared to 1963 when it reached its peak (2.2% per year).
In 2009, for the first time in the history of mankind, an urban population was equal to a rural population amounting to 3.4 billion people. And it is expected that in the future, an increasing part of the world population will be represented by citizens (that is, the urban population will continue to grow faster than the world population as a whole), which is confirmed by the latest data.
In 2010, about 60% of the world's population lived in Asia, 15.5% - in Africa, and 10.4% - in Europe. In 2050, according to the average version of the UN forecast, more than half of the world's population will live in Asia, 25% - in Africa, 8.2% - in Latin America, 7.4% - in Europe, and 4.7% - in North America.
Mention in a world population essay that the largest state in terms of population is China. After 2025, perhaps, India will become a leader. Until 1991, USSR had the third largest population. After its disintegration, US became the third. There were 300 million Americans after 2006 (more than the population of all CIS countries). Indonesia and Brazil occupy the fourth and fifth places. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Russia occupy the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth places respectively.
It is important to mention in an essay on population explosion that, as the UN report says, by the end of this century, the world's population will be more than two times higher in comparison with 2011 and will reach 15 billion people. This figure is much larger than previous estimates of possible population growth.
Thus, the Earth enters an extremely dangerous phase. It is approached by a kind of "perfect storm" in the form of population growth accompanied by climate change and exhaustive hydrocarbon reserves. In fact, as demographers acknowledge, 7 billion people are already too much to ensure a sustained and balanced development, maintenance and renewal of Earth resources.
The current population of the planet has doubled since the 1960s. Explain in a cause and effect essay on population growth that this process is due to the improvement of the quality of medical care and medical products, high fertility in the countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In addition, a certain role was played by the reduction of infant mortality and the increase in life expectancy on all continents of the planet.
True, some experts question the figure of 15 billion inhabitants by the year 2100 proposed by UN. They are not convinced that the population will reach such a catastrophic scale if appropriate measures are not taken. So, the critics of the UN's calculations are inclined to a more realistic indicator of 10-12 billion by the specified date.
The author of the first essay on population was a popular economist Thomas Robert Malthus. This name was widely known for two centuries, and Malthus' main work "An Essay on the Principle of Population" played a huge role in the development of economic science and demography.
The main postulate of Malthus' theory consists in the following rule: the population, if its free reproduction faces no obstacles, doubles every 25 years, in other words, in a geometric progression. At the same time, the amount of resources needed to sustain life grows only in arithmetic progression. Malthus believed that, from the very beginning, human nature itself forces people to recklessly breed.
Another important principle of the Malthus' theory which may be described in an essay on population crisis was the opinion that people should not give birth to children if they are not able to feed them. He believed that it was not necessary to support the poor layers of the population. When the life of the poor improves, the birth rate increases, which leads to poverty again because there are too many consumers of material means of subsistence and resources.
To regulate the growth of the population, Malthus proposed two types of solutions. The first is natural: wars, epidemics, starvation, etc. But since it would be anti-human to increase mortality to reduce the population, he proposed an artificial way to limit fertility through abstinence and even asceticism.
With his personal example, Malthus showed how this principle could work: his two sons died without leaving any offspring, and his daughter died at the age of 17. With all this, Malthus never had illusions about the fact that, one day, humanity will be able to reduce or at least stabilize its amount in this way. On the contrary, he predicted that sins and vices would lead mankind to complete extinction, and there would be no hope for stabilization.
In the course of essay writing on population explosion, explain that, speaking about the doubling, Malthus meant four children born in each family (or about 5-6 births in periods of inevitable infant mortality). This figure may seem exaggerated to us, people living in a society where the limitation of births is a common phenomenon. But it is obvious that the number of births would be much higher if the reproduction of the genus took place according to its natural course.
During the reproduction period, a woman may be pregnant twenty times, and sometimes more. Because of this, the population grew throughout the history of mankind. There are no signs that the reproductive capacity of both sexes is now less than ever before. Therefore, using figure 2 as a multiplier, Malthus did not allow any excessive assumption.
Stress in a population control argumentative essay that the doubt may be caused rather by the time period of twenty-five years. The interval between the average age of parents and the average age of children when they become capable of reproducing cannot be less than 33 years. This is a period of one generation, and there have always been about three such periods in one century.
Obviously, the earth cannot bear more people than it can feed. Nature condemns extra individuals to starve to death. This rule acts in the whole animal and vegetable kingdom: the uncontrollable fecundity is ruthlessly reduced by death to the desired proportion, and the level determined by necessity does not rise higher and does not go lower.
Most of the population of wild peoples (as well as animals which they resemble) literally die of hunger. Malthus elaborated on describing the state of these primitive societies. In this respect, he was one of the forerunners of prehistoric sociology, which afterward moved far ahead. Thus, the theories of this scientist represent a sufficiently reliable basis for consideration of easy cause and effect essay topics for population growth.
He showed very well how the lack of food entails a thousand evils: not only mortality, epidemics, the goal is not the eating of enemy's body, in any case, leads to a usurpation of his land.
Malthus emphasized that even among modern peoples, there are cruel (albeit to a lesser extent) ways of reducing the population. Although in its usual sense, starvation does not occur almost anywhere, it does not cease to influence the most civilized societies in the form of physiological disasters. Their most deadly manifestation is tuberculosis which causes terrible childhood mortality and premature mortality among the adult working population.
As for the war, it does not cease to mow people. Malthus was a contemporary of the French Revolutionary Wars, which destroyed up to ten million adult people in Europe during the period from 1791 to 1815
It’s worth noting in a human population growth research paper that the teaching of Malthus was accepted ambiguously. On the one hand, a whole "Malthusianism" movement emerged. Its members preached the idea of the inevitable depletion of resources. On the other hand, there was a strong opposition in traditionalist and religious circles. The high population level always was considered as a blessing for the country. No one ever was afraid of an excessive increase in it, since it was naturally regulated by means of subsistence.
The name of the physiocrat Mirabeau who supported these ideas in the book "A Treatise on Population" may be found in many population research paper examples. Adherents of a natural order could not worry about such a fact as population growth. But this optimism acquired extraordinary scale with the appearance of Godwin, whose work "Political Justice", which appeared in 1793, made a terrific impression on the minds. It was said that Godwin was the first theorist of anarchism. Indeed, he, apparently, was the first to state the famous phrase: "Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil."
In any case, he was the forerunner of anarchism due to the boundless belief in the future of societies: the progress of science will enable people to produce products in such quantity that half an hour's work per day will be enough to satisfy the needs of all members of society, which should restrain personal interests and struggle for profit.
But here is one of the most important research paper questions about population: on that day when life becomes so easy and pleasant, will there be a danger that people may breed to such an extent that the earth will not be able to feed them all? Raising this issue, Godwin did not suspect what a terrible problem he put forward.
He answered this question calmly, with an unflappable belief in the future, assuring that such an assumption might be realized only in the myriad of centuries, that, probably, it will not be realized at all, and the mind will be powerful enough to curb the sexual desire, to overcome the thirst for profit. He even envisaged the prospect of a social state in which the mind dominates the senses so much that the reproduction of our race will stop, and that a human will become immortal.
Religious circles criticized Malthus from the other point of view. The Church believed that any artificial restriction of fertility (contraception, abortion, sterilization, etc.) is the interference in the affairs of the Lord.
It is interesting to mention in an essay about population problem that Malthus was constantly credited with views against which he was openly speaking. Intellectuals familiar with the works of scientist, for some reason, creatively reprocessed what they read. Here is the example. In the famous novel "Brave New World" (1932), Aldous Huxley described a sterile future, in which the demographic problem, in fact, is absent. Members of pre-planned castes grow in giant incubators. Family, as a social institution, is absent.
Biological instincts are suppressed and sublimated, in particular, by a method of contraception called "Malthusian belt". As a result, it seems that Malthus was a supporter of contraceptive birth control. Meanwhile, it is enough to turn to his writings to understand that these methods have nothing to do with his theories.
In the mid-60s of the 20th century, mankind first thought about the problem of overpopulation of the Earth and depletion of resources. Most research paper examples about population control include the information about so-called "Club of Rome" - the community of the world's largest businessmen, politicians, and public figures united by the idea of preserving the natural environment on the Earth.
This organization was the initiator of the large-scale research and finding ways out of the crisis. The activities of the "Club of Rome" led to the emergence of whole scientific concepts related to the problem of population management, forecasting, and planning.
In many aspects, the explanation and ways out of the current situation proposed by modern scientists coincide with the opinion of Malthus. But now, being free of religious doctrine, researchers boldly offer methods that were completely denied by both the church and Malthus himself.
In terms of the origins of the problem of overpopulation, Malthus and contemporary researchers coincide. People are eager to reproduce the genus. You may describe in a “Relationship between national wealth and population health” essay that, with the improvement of quality and conditions of life, at first, the death rate falls quickly enough. With a cardinal and consistently high improvement in life, the birth rate gradually declines. Most importantly, this process is rather long and the time gap between the onset of a drop in mortality and the onset of a fall in the birth rate can take decades.
To prove the relevance of a “How to control population?” essay, it’s worth writing that the number of people on the planet affects its state, namely the level of consumption of resources, which varies radically for different cultures and states.
The countries of Western Europe and the USA have the highest level of consumption of energy resources. If all people would live like savage Brazilian Indians, the Earth will be able to endure about 20-30 billion people. Consuming as many resources as US citizens, people would have been exhausted the limit of environmental endurance long ago.
Mention in a population and environment essay that many researchers have tried to determine the endurance of the Earth. The results of their work were within the following limits: from 1.2 billion to billiard of people. The last (maximum) figure was named by the Italian system analyst Cesare Marchetti in a study he wrote in 1978 as a retort for the famous analysis "The Limits to Growth" issued by “Club of Rome” in 1972.
Marchetti described a kind of a global city-garden where people live in huge buildings. Each of them may be compared with a whole town. Less densely populated places serve as recreation areas. Energy is produced by solar power plants, as well as nuclear and diffusion reactors. According to this scenario, the entire surface of the Earth suitable for construction will be used for agriculture purposes. There will remain no nature at all.
The lower limit was named by the American biologist Paul Ehrlich. His book "The Population Bomb" issued in 1968 made a furor. The scientist predicted a global famine of 1970-1980 caused by the fact that overpopulation exhausted all resources.
Stress in an essay on increasing population that the most realistic figures were provided by the ecologists William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel. In the 90's, they created the concept of "ecological footprint", announced the number of people who can safely survive on Earth saving resources and applying advanced technologies (using the Earth's energy and solar energy). These figures were named for the territories of ecologically productive states.
According to their data, the inhabited area of the Earth is about 9 billion hectares, where about 6 billion people lived at the time of research. Thus, there were 1.5 hectares per person. There were 0.4 ha per person in such countries as India and 3-4 ha in Europe. Residents of the United States, as specialists in wastefulness, possessed 5.1 hectares.
Based on these figures, the use of resources exceeded the Earth's endurance by 30%. If all people began to live like Americans, they would need three Earths. On the contrary, with a modest lifestyle (2-3 hectares per person), 3-4.5 billion people could live on the Earth. According to other studies of this kind, the Earth's endurance limit is only 2 billion people.
The main point of an essay on population is that, at the moment, it at least four times exceeds one of the projected limits of the maximum population on the planet. And yet, not all people are aware of the impending catastrophe.
There are negative social effects of overpopulation which invariably accompany large crowds of people in megacities. A modern human often experiences depression of reproductive efficiency, neuroses, psychological discomfort associated with a large number of people around.
Also, there are more serious problems. As it was already said, the population growth causes the growth of an industry, the intensification of exploitation of natural resources and general oppression of the environment. The main problem is that most people do not notice the alarming signs of an environmental disaster or just do not want to notice them.
It should be stated in a short essay on world population that today, mankind lives beyond normal environmental conditions. The current size of the population, exceeding 7 billion, is too large. And the consequences are felt by the whole planet: the oceans and seas are devastated, all large areas of the earth suffer from mining and agriculture, the tropical forests and other ecologically important wild areas decrease catastrophically. Fields for cattle, areas for food and energy plants, as well as zones for planting fruit and other trees arise in their place.
For this reason, it is worthwhile to seriously think about reducing the population. But it is not about radical measures infringing on human rights. The world community should resort to a reasonable limitation of population growth rates, as well as to encouraging spatial distribution of people.
Writing an essay on the ecological effects of increased population, you may describe the picture of the future world. The following features characterize a society that, in its development, goes beyond permissible limits, uses Earth reserves faster than they can be restored, is freed from production waste polluting the environment faster than the planet can absorb or recycle these wastes:
Thus, it becomes obvious that the Earth can withstand a much larger population than at the moment, but its existence will be accompanied by an irreversible oppression of the environment, a decrease in the total amount of resources. As a consequence, there will be a decrease in the comfort of living of each person on the planet in conditions of crowding, psychological and physical discomfort.
When you’ll finish the research on population, conclusion (essay last paragraph) should lead the reader to the following idea: in order to prevent such phenomena, it is necessary to work out a set of measures (including various directions from the demographic to new energy policy) for implementation by the entire international community.
Aging population argumentative essay topics are quite relevant today, because according to the UN, during 1994-2014, the number of people over 60 years has doubled. In 2014, the number of old people in the world exceeded the number of children under the age of five.
In some countries, for example, in France and Sweden, the first signs of a population aging have emerged in the last century. But never before the increase in the number of old people has occurred with such pace and scale as today.
Now, in 15 EU countries, above 15% of citizens are at the age of 65 years and higher. The youngest country is Ireland (11.5%), and the oldest one is Sweden (17.5%). However, during the coming decades, the gap will decrease. The elderly group will be supplemented by generations born during the last baby boom (1946-1964). Compared to Western European countries, the United States is a younger state: there are less than 13% of people over 65 years old.
The causes of population aging are ambiguous. On the one hand, this is the decline in the birth rate, which leads to a reduction in the number of children and young people, on the other - an increase in life expectancy. In 1996, the average life expectancy in the EU was 80 years for women and 74 years for men. Sweden had the highest indicator, Portugal - the lowest.
Here are the most important economic and social consequences of this trend which should be described in an aging population research paper:
It should be mentioned in an aging population opinion essay that this phenomenon influences the structure of material production, changes the range of goods and services in accordance with the needs of older clients. It is also necessary to change some technological operations, adapt machines and equipment to the age-specific characteristics of workers. Means of transport, opportunities, and ease of their use also should correspond to the requirements of older people.
A certain part of the elderly population can and wants to work. However, in a number of countries, there are laws that establish the age when a person must leave the workplace. In most states, such a border is 65 years old. But life does not always fit into the strict prescriptions of legislators. Therefore, in accordance with some pension systems, early retirement is encouraged.
On the one hand, there is a tendency for an earlier retirement, which in some countries leads to a certain decrease in pension payments. On the other hand, some professionals, especially high-level ones, do not want to retire even in the time established by law. In general, the share of employees older than 65 years reduces. This does not apply to farms where people work until old age. But the share of people employed in agriculture is small and continues to decrease.
A huge influx of women (often highly educated) into the labor market leads to the displacement of older men in some countries. The use of fundamentally new production technologies also displaces the older generation. The retraining of the elderly is considered unprofitable by the entrepreneurs: it is more expedient to invest in training of young, promising workers who have many years of labor life ahead of them.
The process of population aging is closely related to the evolution that the family institution undergoes now. As a result of major social, demographic and economic changes, the family is divided into generations and often cannot provide care for elderly relatives. The proportion of elderly people living with their children or relatives steadily declines.
Some experts claim that the family falls apart and there is even a danger of its complete disappearance as a public institution. Basically, a modern family consists of parents and minor children. Married adult children, as a rule, do not live with their parents, are less willing and able to provide them with material assistance.
The essay genre does not imply any strict framework. However, it has a number of features that should be taken into account if you want to get a high score. First of all, it's worth sticking to the standard structure while compiling world population research paper outlines:
It is important to remember that an essay is a short text with a clearly stated goal. It is not necessary to overload the reader's attention with the description of various aspects of the studied sphere. For example, if you write a research paper about homelessness population, there is absolutely no need in considering world history, rules of statistics or problem of population aging. A separate study should be devoted to each of these issues.
Your opinion should always remain in the spotlight. If readers were interested in well-known facts, they would use Wikipedia or other information sources. Therefore, it is not enough to retell the studied material in your own words. It is also necessary to express a personal attitude.
For example, you write an essay on how to manage a population explosion. After a description of the methods developed by famous scientists, it is worth explaining why you think that certain theory is effective, whether you would recommend it to wide use, etc.
Of course, your opinion may not coincide with the point of view of representatives of the academic elite. But no one expects that the student will be more competent than the Nobel laureate. The task of the essay is to teach you to think, analyze facts and express own opinion. All professors started with this.
State your thoughts sincerely. This is much better than copying information from textbooks. This genre allows an expression of emotions, feelings, and impressions, a call for empathy with the problem under consideration.
However, freedom of writing does not extend to errors. Of course, they should be absent in the text. So carefully read the paper when it is ready. Change phrases that sound awkwardly, eliminate unnecessary information, correct punctuation, lexical and other mistakes. As a result, you will have a neat, easily readable text that will delight the teacher.
If some nuances of writing such works are still unclear, it is better to study a sample of a research paper about population growth. Other people's essays will provide you with a lot of useful information and inspiration for composing own research. After comparing the views of different authors, it will be easier for you to decide which opinion to support.
We hope that this article was useful and you will write a delightful work. Good luck!
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