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Writing About Genetic Engineering

Essay paper writing

Academic writing


Relevance of essays on genetic engineering is connected with the fact that the problems of biology and medicine dominate in the natural sciences of the last decades. The scientific knowledge is focused on the mystery of life, in particular, heredity and human variability. This determines the intensive development of genetics, a science that studies these properties of living systems.

New discoveries made in laboratories around the world concern the decoding of the human and other organisms' genome, the knowledge of the most complex mechanisms of their functioning. They determine the pace and direction of the socio-economic development of society, have a significant impact on philosophy, morality, law, religion and other spheres of culture, since they touch upon the problems of managing the nature of human and all life on Earth.

You may write in a genetic engineering essay introduction that, at the present time, this sphere is in the center of molecular genetics, with the help of which a purposeful change in the properties of organisms is carried out.

Genetic engineering is an area of ​​molecular biology and genetics. It is aimed at creating genetic structures according to the previously prescribed plan, formation of organisms with a new genetic program. Modern researches make a unique contribution to the study of the structural and functional organization of the genomes of various organisms. The methodology of genetic engineering is constantly being improved. More and more people use it in solving the most diverse problems of biological science.

The opportunities offered by this sphere to humanity (both in the field of fundamental science and in many other areas) are very large and often even revolutionary, which makes genetic engineering research paper topics extremely important. It becomes possible to carry out industrial mass production of the necessary proteins, to greatly facilitate the technological processes for obtaining fermentation products (enzymes and amino acids). In the future, GE can be used to improve plants and animals, as well as to treat hereditary diseases of human.

Thus, genetic engineering, being one of the main lines of scientific and technological progress, actively contributes to speeding up the solution of many problems concerning food, agriculture, energy and environment.

General characteristic for a genetic engineering essay

Write in a genetic engineering definition essay that this term means the methods of obtaining recombinant DNA unifying sequences of equal origin, i.e. the chromosomes are transferred from the donor cells to the recipient cells.

The basis of genetic engineering methods is the ability of restriction enzymes to divide DNA into nucleotide sequences. They can be incorporated into the genes of bacterial cells in order to obtain hybrid or chimera forms. These hybrid forms consist of their own DNA and additionally embedded fragments of DNA that is not characteristic of them.

Therefore, cloning of genes is achieved via genetic engineering methods. Explain in a cloning essay that the desired interval of DNA is isolated from a bio-object, and then any amount of it is obtained by growing colonies of genetically identical cells containing a given interval of DNA. Cloning of DNA is the production of its genetically identical colonies.

Genetic engineering is divided into gene, genome and chromosome directions.

The essence of the first (gene) direction consists in the purposeful rearrangements of the natural genome for changing the genetic characteristics of viruses and cells. For example, cellular genes that confer the properties of oncogenicity on viruses can be moved to the viral genomes.

The essence of genome engineering lies in a purposeful deep reorganization of the genome of prokaryotes until the creation of new species. With the help of genome engineering, a large amount of additional genetic information may be introduced and a hybrid organism may be obtained which differs from the original one in many ways.

Chromosome engineering is focused on the chromosomes of cells of higher and lower microorganisms (prokaryotes, eukaryotes). Mention in a “The benefit of genetic engineering” essay that, owing to this direction, it became possible to treat hereditary diseases, to breed animals, various plant species.

Overview for a “Possibilities of genetic engineering” research paper

Born in the early 70's, genetic engineering has made great strides. Its methods transform cells of bacteria, yeasts and mammals into "factories" for the large-scale production of any protein. This makes it possible to analyze in detail the structure and functions of proteins and to use them as medicaments.

Now E. coli has become a supplier of such important hormones as insulin and somatotropin. Previously, insulin was obtained from the pancreas cells of animals, so its cost was very high. To obtain 100 g of crystalline insulin, 800-1000 kg of the pancreas were required, and one cow's pancreas weighs 200-250 grams. This made insulin expensive and unattainable for a wide range of diabetics.

In 1978, researchers from the company "Genentech" first received insulin in a specially designed E. coli strain. It was shown that it does not contain E. coli proteins, endotoxins and other impurities. It does not provoke side effects like animal insulin but does not differ from it in biological activity.

Somatotropin is a human growth hormone. The lack of this hormone leads to dwarfism. If to inject somatotropin in doses of 10 mg per kg of body weight three times a week, then after a year, the child suffering from its deficiency can grow 6 cm. Previously, somatotropin was obtained from cadaveric material (4-6 mg of somatotropin from one corpse in recalculation for the final pharmaceutical remedy). Thus, the available amounts of the hormone were limited. In addition, somatotropin obtained by this method was heterogeneous and could contain slow-developing viruses.

Mention in a genetic engineering history essay that, in 1980, "Genentech" developed a technology for producing somatotropin with the help of bacteria. The obtained substance was devoid of the listed drawbacks. In 1982, human growth hormone was obtained in the culture of E. coli and animal cells at the Pasteur Institute in France. Since 1984, industrial production of insulin has been started in the USSR.

Recombinant DNA technology is based on the production of highly specific DNA probes. With their help, researchers study the expression of genes in tissues, the localization of genes in chromosomes, and identify genes that have related functions (for example, in humans and chicken). DNA probes are also used in the diagnosis of various diseases.

The technology of recombinant DNA realized an unconventional "protein-gene" approach called "reverse genetics". You may explain its essence and benefits in a short essay on genetic engineering. A protein is isolated from the cell. The gene of this protein is cloned, modified by creating a mutant gene encoding the altered form of the protein. The resulting gene is introduced into the cell. If it is expressed, the carrying cell and its offsprings will synthesize the altered protein. Thus, it is possible to correct defective genes and treat hereditary diseases.

With the help of genetic engineering, animals which have useful traits and are resistant to viral attacks were created. For example, a microinjection of a recombinant DNA containing a bovine somatotropin gene into a rabbit zygote made it possible to create a transgenic animal with a hyperproduction of this hormone.

It is even difficult to predict all the opportunities that will be realized in the next few decades. Now let’s consider the fields of practical application of genetic engineering.

Information for an essay on genetic engineering in food production and medicine

essay on genetic engineering

Twenty years ago, plant biotechnology lagged in its development. But it’s worth mentioning in genetic engineering persuasive essay that, over the last 10 years, there has been a rapid release of transgenic plants with new useful features to the market. In 1996, in the US, transgenic plants occupied an area of ​​3 million acres. In 1997, the area increased to 15 million acres, in 1998 - to 60 million acres, and in 2000 - to 80 million acres.

The pace of expansion simply amazes with its speed. Since the main transgenic forms of corn, soybean, cotton with resistance to herbicides and insects have proven themselves well, it is not difficult to guess that the area for genetically engineered plants increased by about 4-5 times in 2001.

In April 1998, there was the following percentage of transgenic forms of plants in agriculture: corn - 6%; soybean - 12%; cotton - 15%; tomatoes - 1%.

Since the number of people has increased from 1.5 to 6.5 billion in the last century, and by 2030, it is expected to grow to 9 billion, there is a serious problem facing humanity - the huge increase in food production. Despite the fact that production has increased by 2.5 times over the past 40 years, it is still not enough.

Another problem is connected with medical treatment. Despite the enormous achievements of modern medicine, today's medicines are so expensive that a part of the population of the earth relies entirely on traditional pre-scientific methods, first of all, on untreated remedies of plant origin.

In developed countries, by 25%, medicines consist of natural substances obtained from plants. The discoveries of recent years indicate that plants will continue to be a source of useful biologically active substances (BTS) for a long time, and that the plant cell's ability to synthesize complex BTS still far exceeds the synthetic ability of a chemical engineer. Stress in a genetic engineering argumentative essay that scientists focused on the problem of creating transgenic plants due to this reason.

The history of genetic engineering of plants is usually counted from 1982, when genetically transformed plants were first obtained. One of the most common methods of transformation is a technology based on processing of tissue with microparticles of gold (or other heavy metals) covered with a solution of DNA. All cultivated commercial varieties of plants are obtained mainly with the help of this method.

The modern arsenal of transformation methods is quite extensive and includes such approaches as the introduction of DNA into bare cells (protoplasts), electroporation of cells, microinjection of DNA into cells, virus-mediated infection, and so on.

It’s worth adding in a “Genetic engineering in agriculture” essay that the researchers went further. Since many plants are susceptible to attacks and eating by insects, GE scientists conducted an experiment with the long-known bacterium Bacillus-Thiringiensis which produces a protein. It turned out that it is very toxic for many kinds of insects, but at the same time, it is safe for mammals. The activated protein binds to receptors of insect's midgut, which leads to pore formation and lysis of the cells of the intestinal epithelium.

The interaction of toxins with receptors is strictly specific, which complicates the selection of the combination toxin-insect. In nature, a large number of Bacillus-Thiringiensis strains have been found. Their toxins act only on certain types of insects. Such preparations have been used for decades to control insects in the fields.

So, you may emphasize in your argumentative research essay on genetic engineering that embedding the protein gene in the plant genome makes it possible to produce transgenic plants that are not eaten by insects. But this method required a lot of work in terms of selecting the necessary strains and creating genetic structures that give the greatest effect for different classes of insects. In addition to the specific behavior of insects, the incorporation of prokaryotic delta toxin genes into the plant genome did not result in a high level of expression, even under the control of strong eukaryotic promoters.

Presumably, this phenomenon arose due to the fact that bacterial genes contain significantly more adenine and thymine nucleotide bases than plant DNA. This problem was solved by creating modified genes. One of the natural genes was excised. Certain fragments preserving the domains encoding the active parts of the delta toxins were added. So, for example, with the help of such approaches, the potato resistant to the Colorado beetle was created.

Cloning of animals

Cloning, in the most general sense, means accurate reproducing of object any number of times. Creation of animals and plants with specified qualities has always been something very tempting, because it meant creation of organisms that are unique and necessary, resistant to diseases, climatic conditions. They may give the necessary amount of meat, milk, fruits, vegetables and other products.

It may be stressed in a genetic engineering research paper written by students that the use of cloning technology implies a unique opportunity to receive phenotypically and genetically identical organisms that can be used to solve various theoretical and applied problems facing biomedicine and agriculture.

It is expected that, thanks to the cloning technology, there will be an accelerated genetic selection and replication of animals with exceptional production indices. In combination with transgenesis, cloning of animals opens up additional opportunities for the production of valuable biologically active proteins for the treatment of various animal and human diseases. Cloning of animals, perhaps, will allow to carry out tests of medicinal preparations on identical organisms.

Scientists developed several methods for cloning higher animals which should be mentioned during essay writing on genetic engineering:

  1. The method of parthenogenesis, in which the division and growth of an unfertilized ovum is induced. This method has certain limitations, since it allows the cloning of only female individuals.
  2. The so-called "embryo splitting" technology, according to scientists, can't fully provide identity with the "parent" body.
  3. The most successful and promising method is "nuclear transfer" or, as it is also called, a surgical method. It is based on replacing the haploid nucleus of the ovum with a diploid nucleus taken from the cells of the embryos. These cells are not yet differentiated (that is, the laying of organs has not started), so their nuclei easily replace the function of the diploid nucleus of a newly fertilized cell.

In 1928, the German embryologist Hans Spemann (1869-1941), cloned the salamander for the first time with the help of a nuclear transplant from one cell to another. In 1935, the scientist received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for the discovery of organizing effects in embryonic development. In his studies, Spemann showed that the cell nucleus controls the development of the embryo.

Later successful experiments on the transplantation of the nuclei of the body cells into an ovum were carried out in 1952 by American scientists Robert Briggs and T.J. King. They received a genetic copy of the frog.

A similar result was achieved in 1960 by John Gurdon in Great Britain. In 1983, geneticists managed to obtain serial clones of adult amphibians.

Legendary sheep Dolly

cloning essay

Many research paper examples on genetic engineering are focused on this experiment. In 1997, Ian Wilmut, a Scottish scientist from the Roslin Institute, surgically created the famous sheep Dolly, a genetic copy of its "mother".

A nucleus was taken from the cells of its udder for transplantation into the ovule of another sheep. The success was promoted by the fact that, instead of injecting a new nucleus, it was possible to achieve the merging of the ovule devoid of nucleus with the usual non-reproductive cell. After this, the ovule with the replaced nucleus developed as fertilized. It is very important that this method allows to take the nucleus of the cloned individual in adulthood, when its genetic attributes are already known.

It may be mentioned in a “Genetic engineering should be banned” essay that, unfortunately, according to scientists, Dolly had not very successful predecessors. The creator of the legendary sheep had to conduct 277 nuclear transplantations. Of all the embryos received, only 29 lived longer than six days, and only one developed into a full-fledged sheep called Dolly. Its live was relatively short - 6,5 years. Sheep was lulled, because, for unknown reasons, it began to suffer from senile diseases.

Then the scientists concluded that the idea of ​​cloning is doomed to failure because of the rapid aging of the body. However, subsequent experiments have refuted these fears. After Dolly's death, it was successfully cloned 13 times.

It should be noted in a persuasive essay against genetic engineering that prominent biologists of the world expressed serious doubts about the purity of the experiment with the sheep Dolly, which gave rise to sharp debates among geneticists.

A scientific report published by Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues from the university where Dolly was born was subjected to criticism. Opponents claimed that the authors of the report failed to prove that Dolly and its "mother" had the same genetic structure. And without this, it is impossible to establish whether Dolly was a clone of an adult animal.

Since the cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1996, genetic scientists have successfully carried out a similar procedure with many other animals. 23 species were cloned in this way, including a dog, a cow, a pig, a rat, a camel and others.

History of human cloning

200 years ago, human cloning was an unattainable fantastic idea. Science does not stand still and, perhaps, in a few centuries, cloning will become as common as the so-called "test tube babies" now.

In the second half of the last century, genetic experiments were conducted with high regularity. Mention in a human genetic engineering essay that, in 1978, the first "test tube baby" was born in England. It was a girl named Louise Brown. The experiment was very important for humanity. Owing to it, many problems were left in the past. Now people who have problems with impregnation also can have children. At the same time, this research was another step towards the possibility of human cloning.

On January 4, 1985, another child was born in London "from a test tube". It was also a girl. The child was born to the world's first surrogate mother. The woman only let the embryo from a donor ovum to grow in her body. This experiment was also successful. It became clear that the child can be born not only by the biological mother.

In 1987, the next genetic studies were conducted. Scientists from The George Washington University, with the help of a special enzyme, managed to separate the cells of the human embryo. They were able to clone them to the stage of 32 cells.

In December 1998, the world was shocked by the news about the creation of the first human clone. It was a genetic double of a resident of South Korea. The shocking experiment was interrupted at the prenatal stage, that is, before the birth of the clone.

Experiments on human cloning began to take place in many countries of the world. In 1998, the Chicago scientist Richard Seed said that he was intended to create a whole laboratory for the human cloning. According to his opinion, in the future, there will be many people wanting to have own clone.

Already at the end of 1998, Richard Seed began to conduct genetic experiments based on one of the methods of development of the body after transplantation of a human embryo into the surrogate mother's uterus. After a while, the first statements of opponents of human cloning began to appear in the media. At that time, it seemed that the entire scientific world was divided into two opposing camps: for and against cloning.

It’s worth writing in a human cloning and genetic engineering argumentative essay that, in 1999, the US issued a law banning such experiments. A little later, most European countries signed the Paris Convention on the prohibition of genetic cloning of humans.

In May 1999, it was reported that a group of laboratories calling themselves Dream Technologies International and located in Costa Rica (Liberia and the Republic of Vanuatu) had successfully cloned humans and animals for several years. The article informed that these laboratories accepted orders from individuals, and supposedly, everyone could clone themselves or their loved ones. Also, the author of the article argued that there is a list of laboratory customers consisting of more than 100 names.

In mid-1999, the church joined the fight against human cloning. Christians believe that creation of artificial organisms is a violation of the uniqueness of human life that God has given to each of us and to no one else.

In April 1999, a meeting of government representatives from 170 countries was held in the Colombian city of Cartagena. The discussion of the Protocol on Biosafety was on the agenda. Most countries supported the establishment of control over the cross-border movement of genetically modified plants and animals.

In May 1999, reports appeared that South Korea managed to clone a cow. Approximately at the same time, scientists from Lithuania expressed their desire to participate in experiments on human cloning. Doctors of several countries decided to unite and conduct the world's first operation for transplantation of artificial liver - not donor, as it was before.

Reports about a secret project on the cloning of Russian writers began to appear. Allegedly, some secret laboratory planned to create clones of A. Chekhov, V. Nabokov, L. Tolstoy, F. Dostoevsky, A. Akhmatova, A. Platonov and B. Pasternak.

At the end of February 2000, scientists began to view the clone as an identical twin of a certain person whose birth was delayed in time. Preliminary legislative acts were considered, according to which clones should officially have the same legal rights and responsibilities as any other human being. People first thought about the need for legislative regulation in this area.

At the end of February 2000, by mistake, the European Patent Office issued a patent for human cloning. This news shocked the whole world.

Since the end of February 2000, a group of Canadian scientists began to conduct experiments on growing organs of the human body.

In March 2000, the press reported that Russian scientists illegally started secret experiments to create clones of people. At that time, the whole world officially refused to try to clone a human. But, despite this, underground researches were still conducted.

The Japanese government opposed this state of affairs and proposed the imposition of imprisonment or large fines for scientists involved in such experiments.

American companies Medarex and Abgenix jointly opened several biotechnology laboratories, where they began to develop a unique live production of human antibodies.

cloning essay 1

At the end of March 2000, a report was published in the media about the death of a teenage volunteer who died after the introduction of a foreign gene. Mass protests against the gene experiments began to appear again. The US National Institutes of Health temporarily suspended funding for gene therapy research. Describe this incident in an essay on why genetic engineering is bad.

In April 2000, various sects began to appear. Their members claimed to be descendants of cloned aliens. In different countries, the first cases of insanity were observed. Instead of the already familiar historical personalities, patients began to consider themselves clones.

According to geneticists, it is early to talk about violation of ethical norms, because a copy of the person and a genetic copy are different things. Moreover, a genetic copy can't be 100% identical.

In April 2000, the British government cancelled the ban on cloning embryos. According to scientists, this should help to create perfectly healthy human organs necessary for transplantation. The benefits are obvious, and the probability of rejection of such organs is negligible.

In May 2000, a congress was held, at which the prospects for using clone technology in medicine were discussed.

In early 2001, a joint press conference took place, in which Brigitte Bouaselie, president of the company Clonaid founded by the Raelism sect, and her Italian partner doctor Severino Antinori took part. Scientists have announced a decision to unite and create a clone of the person whose birth they planned at mid-2003.

In early 2002, scientists of PPL Therapeutics reported that they were able to create several clones of pigs, whose organs ideally suited for transplantation to humans.

On December 27, 2002, Brigitte Bouaselie held a press conference in Hollywood, where she stated that the world's first cloned child had already been born. Allegedly, the girl’s mother was a 30-year-old resident of the United States. According to the president of Clonaid, the baby was absolutely healthy. B. Bouaselie said that the process of pregnancy and the birth itself was shot on video and an independent examination can attest to the genetic identity of the mother and child. Nevertheless, the woman and the born clone weren't shown to the public, and soon their location became unknown.

In January 2003, the birth of another cloned child was announced. This time the experiment was conducted by Dr. Severino Antinori.

At present, cloning of human embryos is prohibited in many countries of the world.

Material for an advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering essay

It should be written in an essay on genetic engineering pros and cons that, despite the clear benefits of genetic research and experiments, they generated various suspicions and fears, have become a matter of concern and even political disputes. Many fear, for example, that some virus that causes cancer in humans will be introduced into a bacterium usually living in the body or on human skin, and then this bacterium will cause cancer.

It is also possible that the plasmid carrying the drug resistance gene will enter the pneumococcus. In the result, pneumococcus will become resistant to antibiotics and pneumonia will not be treatable. Undoubtedly, such dangers are real.

Pros and cons of genetically modified products

Genetic engineering is a powerful way to change a life, but its potential can be dangerous, and first of all, it is necessary to take into account complex and difficultly predictable effects associated with possible environmental impact. Here is one of the persuasive genetic engineering essay examples for scholarship: imagine a poison with a selective effect that is cheaper in production than complex herbicides. What if such substance can't be used in agrotechnics, because it kills useful plants on a par with weeds?

Now imagine that a gene has been introduced into wheat making it resistant to this poison. Farmers who sow transgenic wheat can pollinate the fields with deadly poison increasing their incomes and causing irreparable harm to the environment. On the other hand, genetics can achieve the opposite effect if a culture that does not require herbicides will be produced.

Scientific progress has created a unique challenge for humanity. What may it bring to us: happiness or misfortune? This dilemma is among the most popular genetic engineering essay questions. The possible danger of genetically modified products for human health is already discussed by the whole world. There is no unequivocal and unanimous opinion of scientists on this matter. Some believe that genetic engineering will save mankind from starvation, others - that genetically modified food will kill all living creatures on the earth.

Scientists involved in this dispute argue that genetically modified plants are more productive, more resistant to pesticides, more economical than conventional. Therefore, the future lies behind them. However, specialists not related to the producers of these products are not so optimistic.

It may be stated in a genetic engineering essay conclusion that, at the moment, it is impossible to foresee the long-term consequences that can occur as a result of consumption of genetically modified products. US specialists refer to GMO (genetically modified organisms) relatively calmly. About 80% of all genetic cultures are grown in US. Europe is very negative about such practices. Under the onslaught of the public and consumer organizations who want to know what they eat, a moratorium on the import of such food has been introduced in some countries (Austria, France, Greece, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg).

In other countries, a strict requirement to label genetically modified food was introduced. Naturally, the suppliers did not like such changes very much.

One of the first scientists to raise the alarm about the potential danger of GMO was the British professor Arpad Pusztai. He called such products "food for zombies". These conclusions were made on the basis of the results of experiments with rats which were fed with genetically modified food. It should be stressed in a genetic engineering problems essay that the animals had a shocking set of serious changes in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, goiter, spleen. The greatest concern was caused by the fact that the volume of the brain decreased.

Scientists believe that, with the help of genetically modified plants, crop losses can be reduced. Today, the American potatoes resistant to the Colorado beetle are being actively grown. There is one essential "but" for such varieties. When a plant with sharply increased resistance to a pest is obtained, in two or three generations, this pest will adapt to the plant and devour it even more intensively. Consequently, a resistant potato can generate such aggressive pests which the world has not yet encountered.

Pros and cons of human cloning

It should be written in an “Arguments against human genetic engineering” essay that hypothetical possibility of human cloning faces a lot of ethical, religious, legal and other problems that do not have unequivocal obvious solutions.

The emergence of social anxiety is among the greatest concerns. Who will the clone be for the donor: a child, a brother? How should his relations with other family members be built? There will be a lot of psychological obstacles. Clones are called upon to become the reflections of those who created them. Thus, their psychological and social development will be limited.

It sounds strange and even scary, but it turns out that a human will grow up in the laboratory as a vegetable. Thus, he will become an object that can be produced, which completely deprives him of individuality. A child born by cloning can't be unique. He is a copy of the donor. And this is how he will be perceived all his life - like a commodity that can be produced again and again. Does he have a chance to achieve respect and recognition in society?

At the same time, it should be emphasized in a “Should genetic engineering be legal?” persuasive essay that reproductive cloning can become a real salvation for infertile couples, a unique opportunity to have own offsprings. Couples with non-traditional orientation will also get a chance to create an ordinary family with own child, to love, raise and educate him.

Many people could solve the problems connected with the need for new organs. Replacing sick organs or body parts damaged in accidents with biological material grown using DNA would make a human life easier, longer and painless. Today, many patients die waiting for the donor organ.

An important advantage of cloning is that a person may decide how long he wants to live. It’s difficult not to agree that finishing life after 300 years is a considerable achievement.

It is also worth mentioning about public good in a “The concept of human genetic engineering” essay. How many years and resources are needed to train a person from the moment of his birth? Only at the age of 18-25 he begins to benefit society as its independent unit. A clone could be created as a knowledgeable, educated person with a rich life experience. He will be able to successfully continue the work begun by the donor, even to carry out a revolution in science. Of course, today such picture looks a bit fantastic. But scientists already work to learn how to "transplant" the mind, and maybe, such prospects will become real in the future.

How to write on genetic engineering essay topics?

Despite increasing popularity of such assignments, students and sometimes even teachers do not know how to write an essay on genetic engineering. Because of this, there is a misunderstanding of the basic principles. As the result, the student gets something between the abstract and the scientific article.

In fact, the essay is a small written work of a creative nature. Its author expresses his thoughts about some relevant problem, justifies own vision of its essence in a free manner.

Consider the main features of this type of work:

  • Small volume that traditionally ranges from two to seven pages. This causes such peculiarities of processing and presentation of material as the absence of a strict plan, division into chapters and removal of introduction or conclusion to a separate page.
  • The narrow focus. Because of the small amount of work, it is impossible to analyze many aspects of the phenomenon under study. The need to comply with the size limits makes it necessary to concentrate all attention on one central genetic engineering essay thesis which can be supported by secondary statements.
  • Presence of own opinion. In fact, everything is built around the views of the author, the subsequent proof of their objectivity.
  • Free style. Writing an essay involves the use of journalistic style, rejection of complex language. At the same time, it is better to avoid the use of spoken words, jargon, household names.
  • Use of theses and arguments. In contrast to the abstract, the essay is built on the statement of certain theses which should be confirmed with several arguments. The main part has the structure "thesis - arguments - new theses - new arguments".
  • The possibility of using a creative approach in the presentation of own views. You are not limited to any rigid framework, so you can provide arguments in any form: examples, paradoxes, personal experience and description of the observed situations. It is allowed to add quotations, aphorisms, statements that can attract the attention of the reader.
  • Internal unity. Despite the absence of strict requirements for the genetic engineering essay outline, all the arguments and theses presented must be connected with the answer to the main question. The hypothesis put forward in the introduction must be proved. If this task was successfully completed, it is worth writing about it in conclusion.

As you can see, the main difference from the abstract is the ring structure. The style of writing, a small amount, emphasizing of own opinion distinguish this type of written work from a standard scientific article.

Outline for a research paper on genetic engineering

These structural parts may be found in any genetic engineering sample essay:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Main block which consists of ideas and evidence proving them.
  3. Conclusion.

First, a hypothesis is put forward. It should be indicated in the introduction. You can use a vivid and memorable genetic engineering essay hook that will attract the attention of the reader. Then the alternation of theses and arguments follows.

The thesis is a certain statement used by the author to logically bring his hypothesis to the proof.

The argument is a substantiation of the author's words.  A well-known fact, a logical conclusion, an experience from the life of the author or his surroundings, opinion of scientists, statistical data or research result may be used as a genetic engineering essay argument.

The conclusions summarize all that was written before. The essay is characterized by the absence of a clear allocation of this part. Its features suggest writing the final conclusions immediately after the main text. By volume, the conclusion does not exceed one small paragraph.

Formatting of a ready text

Essays are most often typed in a font Times New Roman, size 14, with intervals 1-1,5. The use of paragraphs is required to get the beautiful, neat text. Tables, graphs, figures are numbered in the order of their appearance in the academic paper.

Footnotes are needed to indicate sources of information used to prove author's position. If you referred to any scientific works, researches, statistical data, then you must necessarily compile a list of literature.

Read the finished work, correct mistakes

One of the most common omissions is an inadequate final check of the text. Therefore, it is best to rest a little after finishing the work and to read the essay again.

Pay attention to the following details:

  • Absence of grammatical, spelling, logical errors.
  • Avoid too long, cumbersome sentences.
  • There shouldn’t be many long or short phrases in a row. Alternate them.
  • Get rid of extensive reasoning which can be reduced.
  • Trace the use of "household" definitions, jargon and street slang.

How to come up with a creative title for a genetic engineering essay?

Interesting genetic engineering essay titles ensure 50% of success. They attract readers, make your text popular and fascinating. Despite the fact that the title consists of only a few words, authors often encounter difficulties while compiling it. What title will be good for the essay? Experienced specialists answer: "Of course, that which will induce people to read the material."

Criteria for catchy title:

  • Intrigue instantly affects the human mind, awakens curiosity and quickly attracts attention. Intrigue the reader! Let him stop the glance on the title and feel the desire to get acquainted with all the stated information.
  • Target orientation. The correct title is always focused on a specific target audience. Header makes it clear to the reader that the material is created for him and will be useful.
  • Benefit. When we search for specific information on the Internet, it may be noticed that not all headlines are thought up correctly. After reading them, the user immediately decides whether the information is valuable to him and whether it is worth spending time on it. Interesting headlines prompt us to open the website and find answers to important questions. The same rule applies to academic papers. Examiner should feel that he will find out something useful in your essay.

Now you know how to write a research paper on genetic engineering. We hope that the above information will help you get the highest score. Good luck!


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