This article highlights a topic that seems to be a truly relevant and still unsolved problem for many states. We are talking about important and inalienable right which determines the degree of openness, humanization and democracy of the society. Continue to read and find out how to write quality freedom of speech argumentative essay.
This issue is not accidental. Now, in the period of large-scale transformations and constant changes of events, the question of how fully the guaranteed freedom of speech, press and other mass media is implemented in the world is often scandal, being a necessary link in the achievement of the citizen's political rights.
The constitution of different countries proclaims them to be legal and democratic states, which implies the existence of guaranteed and really existing freedoms. Their recognition and protection are considered to be the main and determining criterion of the legal nature of legislation and practice of its application. Freedom of speech occupies a special place as one of the most important constitutional human rights.
Defending the idea of its primacy, the French Enlightener Voltaire wrote that people have no freedom without right to express their thoughts. Now, freedom of speech which stayed in oblivion for a long time tends to rise again to the Voltaire's level. People speak about it after a long silence.
Countries claiming to be constitutional states recognize this right and guarantee its direct effect by legal acts. But how real are these guarantees? This question predetermined most of freedom of speech essay topics. Experienced lawyers and not indifferent students seek to reveal the relationship between theory and practice in the field of legal regulation, to determine how fully the norms of law are being implemented in this area.
If you want to write a detailed censorship persuasive essay, it is better to start considering the issue from those times when such freedoms have just begun to develop.
The problem of human rights arose during the development of society in the 17-18th centuries. In general, the non-freedom is extremely interesting topic. If we consider the slave-owning society, lack of freedom was the direct economic and administrative dependence of the slave on the slaveholder. But the other rights of the slave were not determined. The free man was free to the extent that he was not someone's property.
Mention in the censorship essay that the problem of access to information and control over it began to become relevant with the collapse of the slave society and growth of the movement against the tyranny of the Roman emperors, which found a complete parallel in the activity of the Christian church. In a modern language, people of those times tried to establish social justice.
At the very first cathedrals, it became clear that a new ideology required the protection of Christian ideas from their false interpretation. Already in the 3rd century, a list of forbidden books was compiled. According to the church hierarchs, they stated the teachings of Christ incorrectly. The problem of censorship arose even though the very word "censorship" did not exist then.
The Church carried out noble activities at that time, defended the poor, destitute and oppressed people. Nevertheless, it sought to protect the Bible from distortion, to preserve the canonical text. And, accordingly, a framework was introduced for those ideas that were allowed to preach.
Unlike antiquity with the pluralism of the gods, the situation changed. When there were a lot of gods, the problem of censorship and access to certain texts did not exist. When one universally recognized Creator appeared, Christianity began to claim the role of the dominant religion.
Indicate in freedom of speech research paper that originally its ideas presupposed freedom of thought. It is expressed in the Sermon on the Mount set forth in the 4th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew. But in the second millennium, very harsh measures were taken against those who tried to change the Christian ideology or oppose certain provisions of the Bible.
So, the censorship appeared. Church structures in Europe were built on a hierarchical principle which also may be called vertical. Pope was on the top and parish priest or cure - at the lowest level. This hierarchy presupposed the subordination of believers to the spiritual authority of the Vatican. The church did not immediately split into eastern and western, although there were significant differences from the very beginning.
State and university censorship
At the same time, monarchies emerged in Europe. The first of them arose in France, Spain, and England. In Germany and Italy, the situation was more complicated. Many different states were there. Spiritual limitations were based on censorship enforced by the state represented by monarchs. And here we see a certain "division of labor". First, the functions of censorship were placed on the church, then - on universities. The latter are a kind of intermediary link between the government and the church in the implementation of censorship.
Write in freedom of speech limitations essay that the first universities arose on the basis of theological research centers. For example, the Sorbonne was in the temple and local pedagogues studied theology. Therefore, when the French kings entrusted the control over the sacred books to the professors, they knew that these people were faithful Catholics acting within the framework of church institutions.
Censorship was originally intended to preserve the original texts. Then it turned into a means of persecuting dissenters. People began to divide into those who had the right to censor (kings and priests) and those who had to obey their decisions.
During the development of censorship, the institution of the Inquisition was established. People were subjected to double punishment for having another, own point of view. Firstly, their books were taken away and destroyed. Secondly, citizens accused of heresy were burned.
Control over the publication of the Bible went beyond all boundaries. Unlimited power of churchmen, in particular the Pope, led to the flourishing of what we now call corruption and abuse. The Church has created a system of moral education for all people. The person who violated the commandments had to come to confession and receive the remission of sins. This was a complicated procedure. It assumed absolute honesty and frankness in the conversation with the clergyman, the absence of any extraneous influences. Later, the church decided to simplify this procedure with the help of indulgence. That is, everyone could buy an absolution.
Such abuses provoked protests from people who doubt the authority of the clergy to interpret the scriptures. Thus, the Reformation began, which advanced the thesis that a person has the right to communicate with God without a mediator - a priest. In many respects, this served as the beginning of the movement for human rights: to think, to have own opinion and to defend it. People of that time fought tyrants, demanded the possibility to communicate with God for each person.
Reformation and Renaissance
The Protestant Church opposed the Inquisition and censorship. Its representatives, people who appreciated Christian ideals, at the same time began to advocate for freedom of speech. To a certain extent, Luther and some other leaders of the Reformation did this. In any case, they fought for liberation from the hierarchical structure and subordination to authority, against the concept of a person - subject of Pope's power.
This idea was supported by philosophical concepts born in the Renaissance. A question of humanism became extremely relevant. The combination of these two very different tendencies in the struggle against the papal monopoly led to the development of human rights ideas. Freedom of the press was one of the first such rights. Papal and royal power personified authoritarianism. Citizens were not citizens in the literal sense of the word. They were subjects.
Interesting fact for freedom of speech college essay: during the English Revolution, in his famous "Areopagitica", John Milton first put forward the idea of freedom of the press, thought and responsibility of each citizen to think, write and express his opinion. Milton believed that any attempt to restrict this right could once again lead to the strengthening of such an oligarchy as the Catholic Church. Milton did not object to the Christian concept. Remaining within its framework, he wrote remarkable poems related to the history of the church, for example, "Paradise lost".
Nevertheless, he described the press freedom as a human right. At the same time, he admitted that there should be certain restrictions associated with the fact that there is no sense in preaching the authority of the Pope. In this sense, Milton's attacks were directed against the Catholic Church. Few people know that Milton himself was a censor for a while. But he believed that censorship can't be useful: it imposes others' will upon a person.
Further development of the human rights concept is associated with the activities of English and French philosophers: Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot and others. They put forward a number of important thoughts that changed the idea of what the world should be like.
For example, the concept of civil society appeared. The division of powers into administrative, governmental, legislative and judicial was proposed by Montesquieu. And within the framework of these philosophical doctrines, a new understanding of human has emerged. So, this significant period should be mentioned in your freedom of speech and censorship essay.
In England, where a great compromise, the "glorious revolution" occurred in 1688, human rights were respected. But people are still not citizens in England. They are subjects of Her Majesty. They are very free but not absolutely because must recognize the authority of the Queen at least formally.
The Labor Party, one of the leading political forces in Britain, considers it necessary to eliminate the institution of the kingdom. But it deepened into an imperious machine so much that became a kind of guarantee against the appearance of some unconstitutional formations, for example, dictatorships.
The monarch is the supreme authority who sanctifies the constitutional system and protects it. Write in freedom of speech term paper that monarchy does not mean the restriction of human freedoms. It assumes a developed democratic system: an elected parliament, a government accountable to it and an independent court. However, formally all this is not brought to the end.
First government document about human rights
Most consistently, these issues were resolved in the United States of America and in France. During the French Revolution in 1789, the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen was adopted. You may mention in censorship and freedom of speech essay that, of course, these rights were formulated earlier by an English philosopher Thomas Paine and some other activists. But Constitution of France was the first government document which prescribed them. The revolution of 1789 entailed a lot of costs. This is quite rightly written and said by many historians. But any country that seeks to be democratic should create own declaration of human rights and citizenship.
Somewhat later, amendments to the Constitution were adopted in the United States. The first of them stated that the Congress can't interfere in the activities of the church and the press, can't issue laws regulating the religion and the citizen's opinion.
Several very important conclusions were made at that time. List the following achievements in the essay on the First Amendment freedom of speech: religious tolerance, the absence of state church and free activities of religious movements. Religion was not just separated. It appeared outside the state, just like the access to information. In this sense, free press became the most important postulate of American democracy and state development.
And if there are press restrictions, they turn into economic difficulties. The fact is that the press, like the church, can't exist outside certain economic transactions. It is necessary to maintain the buildings of temples, conduct some kind of economic activity. All newspapers must sell their copies, buy paper and ink. In other words, these institutions are not only centers of religion or information sources but also economic agents. And in this sense their activity is regulated by economic legislation allowing to take some measures on the part of the state.
But these actions can't concern the content of the press. In this sense, the American concept presupposes freedom of opinion. It is very important to understand it. Because when we talk about the press, we often consider it widely, as economic freedom of entrepreneurship. All this is right. But the main thing is the free speech which can't be prohibited by law.
In this sense, the United States Constitution defines the most important part of press freedom. Under American law, it is impossible to judge a journalist for content - only for slander, interference with privacy, and other misdeeds that go beyond the framework of legitimate journalistic activities, but not for a point of view, not for an opinion. Indicate this important thought in your freedom of speech and political correctness essay.
Back to France
A new step in the concept of press freedom was made by the French who introduced the notion of abuse of press freedom in the same declaration that was described above. And this for the first time led to the creation of legislation in this area. Unfortunately, its further development was not very promising in France.
First, the freedom of the press went through the Jacobin dictatorship. Then the Thermidorians did a lot to destroy it. And finally, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power. As First Consul and then as Emperor, he virtually abolished the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, introduced a very strict and rigid censorship, and equated "pen to bayonet". He said that several journalists are no less dangerous than a regiment or corps, saw a means of managing opinions and people in journalism, considered the press as an instrument of power. And France had to go through a long process of struggle for human rights.
Historical facts for limitations on freedom of speech essay
Freedom of the press was preserved in England and France experiencing difficulties related to economic aspects. Gradually, laws that determined information management rules were adopted.
In France, after the fall of Napoleon III, the Franco-Prussian War, the defeat of the Paris Commune and the creation of the Third Republic, new legislation on the press appeared. It introduced a certain procedure for clarifying violations committed by newspapers, editorial offices and journalists.
An important instrument was developed for exercising freedom of the speech and suppressing abuses. The point was that such abuses should be punished but the sanctions should be imposed by a jury.
Subsequently, democratic laws left room for struggle against slander, interference in private life, racism, national strife, calls for overthrowing the constitutional order, pornography. All this is in the set of those acts that are called crimes against the press in France. Despite the fact that they limit the possibility to express thoughts with varying degrees of scandalousness, it is worth describing such limitations as a positive phenomenon in the freedom of speech should be restricted essay.
Ask any American about censorship in the US. You will hear a loud resentment based on the irresponsibility of the media that do not feel embarrassed while sticking the nose into the private life of stars, politicians and ordinary citizens, revealing state secrets in order to raise the ratings of TV programs and newspaper runs.
The survey conducted in 2002 in the USA by the Freedom Forum Center for First Amendment showed that 42% of the respondents thought that too many opportunities were given to the US media. The accuracy of this assessment is quite subjective. But you can consider it in essay on disadvantages of freedom of speech. Anyway, there is no doubt that US law prescribes the world's most extensive measures to protect the human rights, which results in genuine guarantees of intellectual freedom in the United States.
On the other hand, Americans value the free speech and press because they create a "market of ideas". The US media provide a wide field for expressing opinions, guard the government's actions within the framework of the law, and allow a wide variety of ideas to be tested in the area of symbolic projects.
US laws protecting intellectual freedom are mainly based on the First Amendment to the US Constitution adopted in 1791. This, in turn, means that the American defense of free speech is based on the norms of common English jurisprudence in accordance with the nature and principles of which laws are subject to interpretation by the judges.
Such interpretation is carried out in the form of decisions on specific court cases instituted on the basis of claims of individuals or the state in the person of its public representatives. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest power in the applying of the provisions of the US Constitution.
Before the victory in the War of Independence, the British colonies in North America respected many laws of the British Parliament regulating the basic rules and setting the total volume of freedom of expression. In the literature, for example, there are limitations that require media publishers to obtain government licenses for their activities. This meant that the materials intended for publication had to be brought to the notice of special persons, which was a veiled form of censorship.
Legally appointed officials were responsible for the conformity of future publications with the norms on the prohibition of blasphemy, obscenity or criticism of the crown qualified as the spread of libelous fabrications. It is not surprising that by the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth century, the inhabitants of the North American colonies began to be burdened by these restrictions.
In particular, it’s worth mentioning the newspaper article published by Benjamin Franklin in Pennsylvania in the defamation and freedom of speech essay. The anonymous journalists asserted that free press is a reliable sign of good government always and everywhere. As Franklin himself wrote, each citizen should be ready to fight and die for it. His opinion was shared by the major theoreticians of American constitutionalism, for example T. Jefferson and J. Madison.
Jefferson believed that the political rights of the people directly depend on the freedom of the press which can't be limited in any way for this reason. That is, the absence of censorship is the only real guarantee of security for all. Since it is almost impossible to resist the power of an openly expressed public opinion, "the waters remain clean".
In turn, Madison argued that public administration without the free distribution of information is a real prologue to farce and tragedy. As he wrote, knowledge will always control the ignorance and people who want to rule their lives should arm themselves with the power that knowledge provides.
As for the legal precedents of defending free-thinking which may be described in the essay about lack of freedom of speech, modern sources refer to the case when, on November 17, 1734, the newspaper publisher Peter Zenger from New York was accused of disseminating slanderous fabrications for publishing anonymous criticism of the British Brigadier-General William Cosby in the New York Weekly Journal.
Thanks to the lawyer Hamilton, the journalist was acquitted by the jury who did not obey a court’s opinion on the advisability of issuing a conviction. The lawyer managed to convince the jury that no one can be sentenced to criminal punishment for public criticism of the authorities, especially when such criticism corresponds to the real state of affairs.
The founders of the Constitution knew human nature, negative psychological impact of orthodoxy and imposition of standardized norms. They weighed the need to restrict free press and equated it to an insult of human rights. The best proof of truth is the possibility of thinking to be perceived in the market of ideas. You may use this statement as convincing freedom of speech essay thesis.
In essence, such views are the legal maximums laid down in the basis of the American legal paradigm. At present, a huge number of impressive political and juristic formulas for the protection of self-expression have been accumulated in the United States.
As the famous D. Pulitzer wrote, country and its press will always rise and fall together. A skillful, disinterested media trained to seek justice for the public good and to show courage in the struggle for it is capable of preserving that social virtue without which the people's state power remains a pretense and a mockery.
Cynical, self-serving demagogic press will eventually breed the same low-quality people. The opportunities to create the future are in the hands of journalists. The task of the state is to educate freethinking people who are not afraid to express their thoughts and improve the world around. Use this argument in free speech on college campuses essay.
Therefore, the independent provision of news is one of the ways of serving the society, regardless of political systems which serve only as a means of achieving the ultimate goal. For Americans, democracy is a political means of establishment of freedom.
However, the existence of independent media does not guarantee democracy and civil society. Even after denationalization, many radio stations limit themselves to broadcasting of rock concerts. Such situation was observed in Budapest, Kiev and Ulan Bator. Some free stations practically did not have information programs despite the fact that modern media are valued primarily because of their ability to collect data without interference from the state, right to distribute news freely.
As it is believed in the US information industry, the editorial point of view is less important than giving the public the opportunity to learn the trustworthy facts. On their basis, people can form own opinion. This approach to the media is very different from the Europe where competent commenting on events is usually highly valued.
As the US citizens believe, the media's devotion to accuracy and truth should be almost the same as the sacred trust that the patient should feel in relation to the doctor. Therefore, the main professional obligation of the journalists is to provide the audience with such facts that can be trusted. At the same time, it is desirable to present the information in an exciting form so that people want to hear and read what they need to know.
Write in against censorship essay that, in general, the understanding and perception of the media as a "fourth power" arose in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century. It became really popular to involve the free press in exposing the ugly actions of political leaders, after which the printed word was increasingly considered as a means of "muckraking".
Democratic media support in America is also based on the opinion that, with an adequate understanding of the state of affairs in the country and the world, people will choose the political institutions that best preserve and protect the fundamental civil rights.
In essence, free media should create a situation in which the government provides the quality information and citizens thereby gain the opportunity to keep the politicians under control. It is natural for Americans to believe that each person has the right to receive accurate reports about activities of government and the state of affairs in the world as a whole.
Independent media should carry out two main functions in the information policy: to control the state power and to tell people about the problems affecting their lives. At the same time, freethinking acquires a bilateral character: the right to receive ideas inevitably follows from the author's (sender's) right to distribute them.
It is worth noting in freedom of speech on social media essay that before the decision of the US Supreme Court in the case of Gitlow v. New York (1925), information independence was not protected by the US courts as one of the fundamental civil rights. Only after this precedent the appropriate constitutional practice became truly intense in the country.
One of the fundamental principles of the First Amendment is that the government can't prohibit the expression of any ideas even if society finds them offensive or unacceptable. This thesis, which was very different from the European approaches, was later confirmed by one of decisions of Judge A. Goldberg (Cox v. Louisiana). He recognized the right of officials to determine what opinions and views should be allowed or prohibited as unconstitutional.
However, as the Supreme Court decided in case Schenk v. United States, the nature of any action depends on the circumstances in which it occurs. Therefore, even the strictest protection of freedom of speech does not justify a person who falsely screams "fire" in a crowded theater. Human rights also do not protect citizens from the prohibition to pronounce words that will have the effect of direct use of force.
As a result, the government was allowed to ban words that clearly provoke a violent conflict and also to assess the application of various offensive epithets and nicknames against private individuals more strictly than against public figures. As Judge Frank Murphy stated in case Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, referring to epithets and personal insults is not an exchange of information or opinions that is usually subject to constitutional protection. Write about it in why are there laws limiting the freedom of speech essay.
On the other hand, considering the case FCC v. Pacifica Foundation (1978), the US Supreme Court stated that content (the context of the conversation) is the most important element of the protection on the basis of the First Amendment. That is, the concept of "obscenity" is largely a function of the context which can't be adequately assessed only by abstract efforts.
It would not be an exaggeration to say that the entire system of protecting intellectual freedom in the United States is currently based on the normative potential of the First Amendment. If we expand the legal meaning of this concise formula, it becomes evident that the First Amendment prescribes the prohibition of censorship and control over the media by the US government and the authorities of individual states. This circumstance automatically follows from the application of the legal sense of the Fourteenth Amendment.
At the same time, the First Amendment does not contain a definition of press and does not impose any duties or obligations on rights recorded in it. After all, the US constitutional doctrine does not know the concept of political obligations of the people.
Judge H. Black wrote that the founding fathers gave the freedom of the press the protection that it must have to fulfill its destiny in democracy. The media should serve managed people but not managers. The government's right for censorship was abolished precisely so that the press could always censor the politicians. The media are protected in such a way as to be able to expose the secrets of officials and inform the people. This is a strong argument for the importance of freedom of speech essay.
In the formally-logical sense, the First Amendment begins with a general constitutional prohibition imposed on the US Congress as a federal legislative power. Then there are six special prohibitions, among which there is a ban on restricting freedom of speech and press. In general, as stated in the American literature, the single function of all six limitations is to protect the intellectual expression of American citizens against interference by federal authorities.
According to P. Buchanan, all ideas have the right to be expressed and heard. But there is no conclusion that they will necessarily be listened to. Therefore, the First Amendment requires respecting liars as well as truth lovers, and fools - no less than wise persons. Eventually, societies and peoples develop independently separating the reliable facts from dubious ones.
Commenting on the general effect of the American mechanism for protecting human rights in why freedom of speech is important essay, it is worth emphasizing that the legal scope of the First Amendment is now determined by the totality of decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States which used the famous formula during two centuries in a variety of circumstances. That is, the decisions of the US Supreme Court represent a fairly long verbal battle between the right of citizens to speak freely and the government's authority to intervene and punish.
For example, the civil dislike of the authorities' attempt to ban the publications provoking turmoil and conflicts was clearly manifested already in the first decisions of the US Supreme Court on freedom of the press. In particular, in the case Near v. Minnesota (1931), Judge E. Hughes, citing the classics, argued that freethinking is the most essential attribute of a democratic state.
This thesis was followed by the complete impossibility of any preliminary restrictions on media materials, including freedom from censorship for documents in criminal cases. As stated in the above decision, each free person has the undoubted right to express his opinion to the public. Doing otherwise would mean the destruction of press freedom.
As for the publication of something "wrong, harmful or illegal", each author should be aware of the possible consequences of such recklessness. Based on the authority of J. Madison's judgment that some degree of insult is inseparable from the proper use of anything, the judge stated that great and significant human rights must be protected not only by the executive but also by the legislative ambitions of power.
As E. Hughes claimed, public officers whose behavior is open to debate in the press should use the medicine against the false accusations - the libel laws. The latter ensure the restoration of the good name and punishment of the guilty but do not limit publications in newspapers or other similar sources. This fine detail must be clearly delineated in should freedom of speech be limited essay.
At the same time, absence of censorship should be extended to all judgments, so that subsequent punishment can be applied to the authors of both truthful and false statements. As it was concluded by this judicial decision, the freedom protected by the First Amendment had and has special connotations in each of its historical phases.
As a result, the US Supreme Court invalidated those laws that allowed officials to impose a ban on publishing "malicious, scandalous and defamatory" newspapers. The court stated that any preliminary restriction on press freedom (censorship) is contrary to the First Amendment. Simultaneously, the Supreme Court noted the permissibility of restrictions on the publication of data on troop movements in wartime, indecent material and direct calls for acts of violence.
In our time, there are similar parameters that determine the censorship. But printed word is not the only tool for expressing opinions, views and conveying information. There are many other options: newspapers, magazines, radio, television, cable broadcasting. Finally, there are mass media on the Internet. Therefore, the freedom of the speech becomes more widespread. It remains the fundamental right because a person can carry out his activities only within the framework of a conscious understanding of what is happening in the world.
As for the definition "journalist", American practice faces obvious difficulties. The Internet has allowed almost everyone to disseminate information and ideas regardless of any political control. The Internet is generally accessible and unlimited, which creates complex challenges for the American jurisprudence of the information age.
As a rule, Internet providers, unlike traditional publishers and journalists, have commercial relations with users. In the case of litigation challenging, there is a risk that they will remove more information than needed from the global network. To avoid this threat in the US (as well as in Germany), ISPs are granted broad immunity from liability for the content of the messages sent by the third parties.
In the United States, there are practically no legal rules governing the operation of the Internet. The Federal Communications Commission deliberately avoids the regulation of online information services because it fears the subsequent restriction of the electronic media development by the state.
As it is believed in the US, the traditional legislative regulation of the Internet is futile. In particular, the decision of the US Supreme Court in the case of Reno v. The ACLU (1997) affirmed that the Internet is a unique way of communication for people all over the world and its resources are as diverse as human thought itself. Write in essays on freedom of speech that, in promoting freedom of expression in a democratic society, Internet outweighs any abstract but not proven advantages of censorship. It should be given the highest degree of protection. Politically, the main effect of the Internet is that it transfers control over the creation, dissemination and receipt of information to the hands of people.
It is noteworthy that the US Congress refused to finance the project of the White House "Terrorism Information Awareness" (TIA program) which assumes the creation of an electronic data collection system - from private letters to the results of medical examinations and banking operations. Initially, Congress banned the Pentagon from using electronic systems similar to TIA only in relation to US citizens. So, the legal purpose of the TIA was to check the foreign states and foreigners staying in the US. Currently, they are also protected from electronic collection of personal data.
Unlike France, where there is a state monopoly on the development of electronic encryption systems, the spread of cryptography is free in the US. It is assumed that this procedure gives the American society more advantages. It is known that the National Research Council called for making cryptography accessible to all people. At the same time, special attention was paid to cryptographic protection of information from distortions and also to ways of confirming the identity of the user on the network.
A judicial precedent on the basis of which the ownership of Internet domain names falls under the same protection as ownership of land or real estate was created in San Francisco. This decision became a milestone in the development of Internet legislation. Use it as a vivid illustration for freedom of press essay.
Many people hate the idea that criminals can use the network for illegal activities. However, one should be much more concerned about the state invasion of what has emerged and is developing as a universal and free language. Therefore, the Internet can't be limited by government threatening to limit the expression of thoughts which are as eclectic and diverse as peoples in the world.
Caution should be exercised in trying to balance the information flow and the law. As soon as the restriction of the Internet comes into force, a lot of people will feel that they are stifled by regulation, interference and lack of anonymity.
An obligatory condition for legal protection of information in the United States is its consolidation on a physical carrier. For example, data recorded on a hard disk is protected by US copyright laws unlike the information broadcasted on air without recording.
In general, the free flow of diverse opinions may not only educate but also frighten, harass or bother people. Often, the American press publishes reports that evoke genuine outrage and protest. And yet the freedom of speech set forth in the First Amendment by J. Madison causes not criticism but sincere admiration.
It is noteworthy however that neither the US Constitution (1787) nor the Bill of Rights (1791) have independent executive power. As before, their practical implementation depends on an courts interpreting and translating constitutional norms into practice.
No matter what the classics say, a pen can't write by its own. And even if we consider ourselves no less talented than Shakespeare, inspiration will not be enough for the successful writing of essays about freedom of speech. In fact, the pattern of any academic paper has a fairly strict order and it is not always reasonable to invent something new.
Structure of the essay
Whether you have to write short essay on freedom of speech or extensive research work on this topic, it will have a very clear structure that consists of the following items:
Even if this structure seems too strict and devoid of flexibility, it is worth noting that your own modifications are always welcome. But if your freedom of speech opinion essay is duly compiled, it will be much easier to understand it to the reader or reviewer.
Freedom of speech essay introduction
The main goal of the introduction is to demonstrate your position on the question put forward (in the form of thesis or simple argumentation) and to set a "rhythm" for the whole research. But before proceeding to theses, your research paper on media censorship should begin with a phrase that will attract the attention and cause the desire to read the text to the end. As an interesting introduction, you can use a suitable expression of some famous person or an amazing statistical fact (70% of respondents believe that...)
Proceed to the main theses only after you successfully "threw the bait". Your position should be very clear so that the readers do not have any doubts about your personal attitude to the problem, on which side you are and in what direction your reflections will flow.
Following the thesis, you need to present the short version of freedom of speech essay outline and those examples that will support your arguments. This will not only allow readers to understand what awaits them in the main part but also to grasp the overall meaning of the work.
Do not write more than 3-4 sentences in the introduction not to overload the readers at the very beginning of the work. Try to formulate the last sentence in such a way that it logically explains the beginning of the central part.
The main part
Central freedom of speech essay ideas should be discussed here in detail. Author confirms or proves the theses put forward in the introduction by relevant examples. In the first paragraph of the main part, you should use your strongest and most rigorous argument while the less obvious examples should follow after it (descending sequence according to the freedom of speech research paper outline).
The first sentence should be directly related to the facts mentioned in the introductory section. It is worth understanding that it is not enough just to provide a vivid example. There also should be its clear explanation. In order for the reader to form an integral picture of your pros and cons of freedom of speech essay, choose at least 5-6 relevant examples from life (general) or events (concrete) that confirm the position you are occupying.
Tie all parts of the text to each other. Remember that you should not write separate sentences. All judgments must follow logically from previous statements. If you have used the word "firstly", the next paragraph must begin with "secondly". If you said "on the one hand", do not forget to indicate what is "on the one hand".
Do not use general phrases. We have already found out that the examples should be relevant to the theses. Their explanation should be the same. It may be difficult for you to summarize all arguments in several sentences, so try to discard common facts or details and proceed directly to the very essence of the question.
Despite the fact that we assured you of the need to use only strict expressions without any generalizations, there is still one exception: introductory words. "However", "nevertheless", "as a result", "on the contrary" - it is difficult to imagine a full-fledged censorship research papers without such phrases. Introductory words are especially good because they clearly show the reader where one semantic section ends and a new one begins. So do not neglect them.
Freedom of speech essay conclusion
Despite the fact that the conclusion is at the very end of the paper, do not write it as if you have a new thought in your head. The final paragraph is the last chance to emphasize the depth of your reflections.
Paradoxically, you will be able to write a truly meaningful conclusion presenting it in the form of a second introduction. Yes, exactly! The fact is that these sections have a lot of common characteristics. Conclusion also should not be too long: four perfectly arranged sentences will be enough.
It is necessary to hint at the most interesting thesis mentioned in the introduction. After this, you should draw logical conclusions based on examples and their explanations.
This will be the fourth or fifth time when you will repeat the main thesis, so try to avoid tautology and excessive repetition. Take advantage of the richness of your language and select relevant synonyms for a more diverse speech. This approach will add a sense of originality to your arguments which, in fact, are just repeated once again.
Try to finish what does freedom of speech mean to me essay with some non-trivial phrase that allows to understand that the reasoning is not just completed, but intelligible and useful conclusions are made from it. Make a global conclusion or a kind of call to action.
The titles for freedom of speech essay may be compiled at the very end when author is able to reflect the meaning of the finished work in several words.
We hope that this article was useful and you will write a truly stunning academic work. Review the good freedom of speech essay example created by other author. Spend time for writing drafts. Even if you will not have a masterpiece, do not get upset because a person learns more effectively from his mistakes!
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