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Writing About Human Rights

Essay paper writing

Academic writing

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The relevance of freedom and equality essays is connected with the fact that, recently, the idea of ​​human rights has been firmly established in the public consciousness. It is naturally connected with the general processes of democratization of developed countries. Many people speak and write about human rights. This topic is actively discussed at all levels: from the president to ordinary citizens.

The issue of human rights, as one of the most topical and "fashionable", constantly stays at the pages of newspapers and magazines, TV screens, is invariably present in speeches of statesmen, political leaders, parliamentarians, reports of participants in various scientific conferences. This idea is positioned as the most important humanistic value and an integral element of democracy.

Information for “Concept of human rights” essay

It may be written in “What is human rights?” essay that, in the framework of any democratic system, the freedoms of citizens constitute the most important social, political and legal institution objectively acting as a measure of the achievements of this society, its "visiting card", an indicator of maturity and civilization.

HR serve as a means of access of the individual to spiritual and material goods, mechanisms of power, realization of his interests and expression of will. At the same time, civil liberties are an indispensable condition for improving the personality, consolidating his status, dignity, independence and sovereignty.

You can provide several definitions of this concept in “What are human rights?” essay:

  • These are the rights inherent to each individual, regardless of his belonging to a particular nation, country, gender, ethnic group. They also do not depend on the color of the skin, the religion which the person professes, the native language and other similar criteria. All people are at the same level and have equal human rights which eliminate different kinds of discrimination.
  • It’s worth mentioning in human rights definition essay about a set of characteristic duties of the authorities in relation to individuals who have chosen this power (or submissive to its tyranny) and prohibitions on the interference of authorities in the specific fields of individuals' activities.
  • People may claim equal legal protection and must bear the appropriate punishment for violating the freedoms of other individuals. Human rights are interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
  • The inalienable properties of the person, the features reflecting his freedom. They are necessary for the legal relations of the individual with the state, society or other people.
  • The opportunities guaranteeing freedom of activity in all fields of the public life.
  • Prerequisites for spiritual development of the individual: he has access to the highest spheres of art (literature, visual arts, scientific creativity, etc.) Mention in “Cultural human rights” essay that the law should protect the intellectual property.
  • The basis on which the possibility of preserving the life and dignity of any person rests.
  • The complex of the natural rights reflected in normative legal acts of the government and the acquired legal norms which developed over the centuries, during the formation of society and states.
  • Legal means and abilities of each person.
  • Rights inherent to a person from birth, ensuring his existence as a member of the world community.

Death penalty violates human rights” essay

Global historical review for human rights essay

You may emphasize in “History of human rights” essay introduction that civil liberties are a socio-historical phenomenon. The modern formulation of HR issue (despite its novelty, peculiarities conditioned by the progressive character of the world civilization) is based on the rich experience of previous generations, primarily in the field of legal forms of organization of public and state life of people, regulating their social relations.

Throughout the history of mankind, each state system included a certain legal concept of a person as a subject of law and appropriate notions of his rights, obligations and freedoms. The degree and character of the development of human rights are determined by the level of development of law in the corresponding society.

Explain to the readers of personal freedom essay that human rights were formed on the basis of repeatedly reproduced acts of human activity, connections and stable forms of relations. Involvement of a large number of individuals with their needs and goals into the process of human activity, the clash and confrontation of their interests are inevitable. Everyone strives to possess a certain amount of goods and living conditions (material and spiritual), which society and the state should be able to provide.

Historically, the volume of these goods and conditions has always been determined by the position of the individual in the class structure of society, in the system of material production. These benefits can be conditionally called human rights. This conditionality is determined by the sharp polarization of society at various stages of its development (slavery, feudalism), the uniqueness of civilizations (European, Asian, etc.), which prevented human rights from acquiring the modern interpretation, universal status based on the principles of freedom and formal equality.

Over the centuries, in the progressive countries of Europe, the privileges, freedoms and rights of individual were defended in the fight against royal absolutism (sometimes with subsequent retreats and concessions). Some authors of human rights essay examples claim that the Magna Carta of 1215 expressed and consolidated civil liberties as historical forerunner of the Bill of Rights of 1689, the North American Declaration of Independence of 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789.

"Twelve Articles" of 1525 considered to be the first European document which referred to human rights. Authors of these articles registered the freedoms for which they fought during the German Peasants' War. This act is often linked with M. Luther's treatise because, to some extent, it reflects his theories.

Moreover, it is not difficult to find example of argumentative essay about human rights which is focused on the opinion that the HR concept emerged in the V-VI centuries BC in the ancient Athens and Rome.

However, it is important to emphasize that the basic rights and freedoms of man and citizen that appeared in the course of the natural historical development of the societies of the most developed countries of Western Europe and North America represent a qualitatively new phenomenon that has only one common feature with the distant epochs of history: both then and on the eve of the onset of the New History, humanity strived for freedom, equality, justice (taking into account the specific historical conditions of its existence).

It’s important to stress in “History of human rights” essay that basic civil freedoms that were formed in the course of the natural historical development of the most advanced countries of the world have a qualitatively different social and legal essence which is conditioned by the emergence of democratic civil society and rule of law.

The main advantage of democratic forms of statehood of any historical type is that they take into account the objective need for the sufficient level of freedom of the participants in the dominant production area. They officially recognize the legal status of their citizens, which is dictated by the legal nature of the dominant social relationships, and therefore, by the qualities of the individual - the subject of these relations.

To some extent, despotic and totalitarian regimes are also able to take into account the objective needs of participants in the dominant production area. But they work not so effectively, take the path of usurping the socially dictated liberties of the individual, assign the non-existent right to grant people freedoms. They even can put the entire existing political system on the line catastrophe.

Emphasize in “Equal rights” essay that, in states with a democratic system which existed in the slave or feudal epochs, there were no freedoms of man and citizen inherent to democratic civil society and rule of law in their modern generally recognized sense and meaning.

The first liberal packages of civil and political freedoms (equality, inviolability of the individual, property, suffrage, etc.) were formed in the XIX century. However, in the modern understanding, these provisions were very weak. Slavery, one of the main public problems of that time, was directly related to limitation of human rights. The British Empire distinguished on the path of fighting against it. In 1807, the United Kingdom issued the Slave Trade Act which actually prohibited human trade, in 1833 - the Slavery Abolition Act.

In the northern part of United States, the process of the elimination of slavery took place in 1777-1804. Southerners did not want to abandon such a profitable "business", which eventually led to a civil war and the split of the country. The result was the adoption of amendments to the US Constitution, in which slavery was banned. All people who were born in the United States were given a full set of rights, and black citizens obtained the right to vote.

Information on philosophy & human rights topics for essays

Many good human rights topics to write an essay about are related to the theories of outstanding philosophers. You may write that this concept became a reality of European political life in the 17th and 18th centuries. The theoretical basis of the philosophy of law, ​​freedom and justice was the idea of ​​human rights as the highest value of society and state. It was expressed by philosophers Locke (1632-1704), Montesquieu (1689-1755), Rousseau (1712-1778) and Voltaire (1694-1778). They believed that a person has natural, inalienable rights (the right to life, the right to freedom, etc.) belonging to him from birth, which cannot be taken away neither by the state nor by society.

Mention in “Human and natural rights” essay that this idea was first comprehensively developed in the work of Englishman John Locke (the first philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment), Second Treatise of Government, published in 1688. Locke's theory proceeds from the fact that on the early stage of the development of society, people were equal and possessed natural rights to life, liberty and property.

But these rights give little in the absence of the state. It is almost impossible for individual to protect his liberties alone, and disputes about rights themselves are a powerful source of conflicts. People created society (and society created the state) to be able to enjoy their congenital rights. The natural freedom of a person means not to depend on any supreme authority on the Earth and not to be subordinated to the will or legislative power of man, but to obey only the laws of nature.

The state, according to Locke, is based on a social contract between rulers and governed people. Citizens must submit only when the state protects their human rights (which morally stand above the interests of the ruling elite and arose before the emergence of the state). The state remains legitimate only if it systematically maintains the rights of its citizens and ensures their implementation.

Explain in “Why are human rights important?” essay that, according to the law of nature, everyone has the right to defend his property, i.e. life, freedom and material savings. Ensuring these inalienable values is the main goal of the contractual unification of people into the state and transferring themselves under its authority.

The most important ways of practical realization of human rights include, above all, the principles of people's sovereignty and separation of powers. The first of them, developed primarily by Locke and Rousseau, means the subordination of power to individuals voluntarily united into a society. They have the right to dissolve a "social contract" and to overthrow the power if it encroaches upon the fundamental human rights to life, liberty and property.

The second principle that guarantees individual freedoms is the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Inform the readers of “Theories of human rights” essay that, for the first time, it was formulated in modern form by the French lawyer Montesquieu in the treatise "The Spirit of the Laws" of 1748.

The main goal of the separation is to avoid abuse of power. According to Montesquieu, in order to prevent such an opportunity, there should be a system in which different authorities could mutually restrain each other. Such mutual limitation of the authorities is a necessary condition for their lawful and coordinated functioning in legally delineated borders.

Montesquieu believed that the legislative power occupies the leading and determining position. Note in essay on human rights and development of society that this principle still remains the most important instrument protecting the individual from abuse and harassment on the part of the authorities.

Another aspect to which Montesquieu draws attention is political freedom in its relation not only to the state structure but also to an individual citizen. It is the security of the person. Considering the means of ensuring such security, Montesquieu attributes special importance to the high quality of criminal laws and proceedings.

The theoretical formula for the French revolutionary movement against royal despotism and feudal aristocratic system in the name of natural human rights was supported by some thoughts of Jean-Jacques Rousseau who brought the teachings of the natural school to their extreme consequences. Comparing the ideal of natural law with the surrounding reality, Rousseau came to full and comprehensive condemnation of the latter. You can describe his observations in “Human rights violation” essay.

Rousseau taught that, by nature, human is born free. Meanwhile, we see him in fetters everywhere. By nature, all people are equal. Meanwhile, the contrast between wealth and poverty is a pervasive phenomenon. By nature, all people are brothers. Meanwhile, we can observe the bitter struggle of the classes everywhere. In short, in Rousseau's teachings, one can find all the elements of the famous formula "Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood" which served as the slogan of the French Revolution.

The most recognized leader of the French Enlightenment was the outstanding philosopher Voltaire (pseudonym, real name - Francois Marie Aru). Views on politics, state and law which neighbor with arguments on other topics are present in the most diverse works of the writer. He outlined the program of the French Enlightenment, set a number of fundamental methodological problems and laid the foundations for educational criticism of religion.

Voltaire, as a representative of the school of natural law, recognized the existence of inalienable natural rights of each individual: freedom, property, security, equality. However, it’s worth clarifying in “Justice and human rights” essay that, when Voltaire spoke of equality, he had in mind formal equality before the law, that is, the abolition of feudal privileges and the establishment of equal legal capacity, but by no means equality of social status. He believed that, in the real world, people would be inevitably divided into two classes: the rich and the poor.

Human rights in international relations essay

Material on US history & human rights topics for research paper

Human rights persuasive essay topics often refer to the past, because the US history is saturated with the struggle for the supremacy of freedom. The United States of America were proclaimed an independent state in 1776. The American people had to spend another seven years in a hard war with England to defend their independence. Only in 1783, through the Treaty of Paris, England recognized the sovereignty of the young republic.

The conflict between the colonies and the metropolises gradually increased. The colonization of North America started yet in the beginning of the seventeenth century. The vast majority of white settlers came from Europe, mainly from England. By the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, about 2.5 million people lived in 13 colonies. 500 thousand of them were Negro slaves from Africa. Attempts to turn the Indians into slaves were unsuccessful.

The colonial administration found a common language with the legislative assemblies of colonies. The situation with the mass gatherings of settlers was harder. They sometimes uttered very radical statements, for example: "Taxation without representation is tyranny!"

Attempts of the government of England to contain, suspend the rapid economic growth of the American colonies, their desire for complete independence and elimination of the rule of the metropolis faced the determined resistance of the American people.

The introduction of stamp duty on almost all business papers, the establishment of duties on a number of goods, the ban on issuing credit tickets caused widespread discontent in 1765. "Tea law" which did not allow English colonists to transport tea faced resistance.

On April 19, 1775, open military operations began between the colonists and the British troops. On May 10, the Second Continental Congress was formed in Philadelphia, which lasted intermittently until 1779. Due to extraordinary circumstances, it turned from an advisory body to a plenipotentiary assembly of representatives of all colonies and began to perform the functions of a federal representation. Colonel George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief. In June, the establishment of a regular army was announced. In response, the king declared that the colonies were in a state of insurrection.

The most important achievement of the Second Continental Congress is the adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Mention in “Importance of human rights” essay that this day is considered a national holiday. In an accessible form, the Declaration expressed the fundamental aspirations of the American people about freedom and democracy. It was read against the background of cannon salutes and bells. This document inspired soldiers better than any sermon.

The reasons for the complete breakdown of political and state ties with England were justified as follows: all people are equal; they all have the inalienable rights granted by the Creator, including life, freedom and pursuit of happiness. It’s quite easy to find human rights research paper example focused on the interpretation of the text of the Declaration, because this topic is very popular.

An important constitutional act issued during the War of Independence is the Articles of Confederation that gained force on March 1, 1781. Essentially, this is a treaty of alliance and cooperation between 13 independent states. In it, former colonies are called states. Each of them retained its sovereignty. To manage the general affairs of the union, it was planned to annually convene a unicameral congress. Each state had one vote, but the number of delegates ranged from 2 to 7 people.

The final stage of the democratic development of the United States was the adoption of the Constitution of 1787. September 17, 1787 the Convention approved the project of the Constitution, and after its ratification by three fourths of the states, it came into force.

But even with the ratification of the Constitution, under the pressure of the people, state legislatures demanded to supplement it with articles on the rights and freedoms of citizens. They positioned the fulfillment of these requirements as a mandatory condition for the entry of the Constitution into force.

It’s important to mention in human rights thematic essay that the dissatisfaction of wide masses of the population, as well as the impact of the Great French Revolution, led to the formulation of the first twelve amendments to the constitution (the "Bill of Rights"), which were proposed for consideration in 1789. 10 of them came into force in 1791.

According to this document and various special provisions of laws, private individuals are protected from certain types of discrimination. For example, the First Amendment refers to issues of freedom of speech. The provisions of the Fourth Amendment, concerning protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, prohibit government intervention in certain areas of individual activities.

These provisions, which are usually realized through judicial protection, express the commitment to the idea that specific individual freedoms (directed against unreasonable government interference in private life) are essential elements of a free society. These privacy measures are usually included into the term "civil liberties".

Federal and state laws, individual rights to equal treatment of all citizens (regardless of their individual characteristics) are also protected by the US Constitution. You may explain in discrimination essay introduction that these protection measures express the commitment to the fact that certain critical decisions affecting individual opportunities and material well-being should not be made on the basis of individual characteristics that are irrelevant and are not an equitable basis for the treatment of individuals.

These measures to protect civil rights from discrimination exist both in the US Constitution and in the Constitutions of individual states, as well as in many federal and state legislative acts that have been adopted in different periods of American history as a response to certain types of discrimination.

International law & human rights

In reality, human rights are determined by the constitution of a particular state. Each person is the subject of internal order. International law can influence people only via the domestic rules. Hence, it may be stated in reflective essay on human rights that there can be no international regulation of civil liberties in its pure form.

And it is quite easy to doubt the idea of international protection of human rights. Let's figure out the general principle: the state, in the person of its bodies and officials, interprets and grants its citizens the rights and freedoms recorded in international documents.

Here is a simple example. The International Covenants on Human Rights came into force in 1976. Despite the fact that many countries agreed with the provisions set forth in them, a number of concepts did not become a reality and remained on paper. In the United States, where the Covenants were not adopted at all, the situation with the protection of human rights is even worse.

If we consider the situation with civil liberties through the prism of accepted and well-known international acts, it is obvious that the full standard that is established in these documents is not applied in any country in the world.

There cannot be a single criterion in assessing the situation with human rights in a particular society. But your task is to consider universal standard which is fixed in the main international acts and is offered to the world community as a role model.

If you write an essay on international human rights law and organizations, be sure to list the main legal documents in this area:

  • The UN Charter, where we may find the principle of non-discrimination of people on the basis of race, language, religion and sex, the appeal to the world community to cooperate in the field of human rights.
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, which specifically defines human rights and freedoms.
  • The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
  • The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights plus its Optional Protocol (Covenants were adopted in 1966 and entered into force in 1976).
  • Various international regional human rights agreements (the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950, the European Social Charter of 1961, the American Convention on Human Rights of 1969, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights of 1981).
  • While developing these documents, various international bodies were established.
  • UN General Assembly Resolutions related to human rights: results of numerous international forums.

The international standard of human rights is based on the ideals set forth below.

Equality of people

If you will use a hook “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights”, essay introduction is guaranteed to attract the attention of the reader, because these are words from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Explain further that recognition of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of human society is the basis of freedom, justice and universal peace.

A number of rights related to the equality of people are universal: the right to life, liberty, security, adequate food, fair trial, freedom of movement, citizenship, family, property, freedom of thought, conscience, religion, convictions, work, rest and education.

Stress in “Human rights and duties” essay that any discrimination in relation to the listed rights is inadmissible. But there are special circumstances in life when a positive differentiation between people is possible. For example, special benefits and protection for pregnant and lactating women are not considered as discrimination (Maternity Protection Convention, 1952). The same applies to refugees (Convention  Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951),  children and adolescents (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989), victims of torture (Convention Against Torture, 1984), mentally retarded persons (UN Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, 1975), migrant workers (European Social Charter, 1961, UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990), racial and ethnic groups (International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966).

Any benefits and restrictions may be established by the state only in the legislative order

Each good “Justice and human rights” thematic essay example contains the description of the following benefits which were received by people in the course of the class struggle: the right to take part in the management of the state through parliamentary representation, the right to paid vacation, to fair remuneration for work, to participate in the management of enterprises, to act in the sphere of private property, and, especially, the right to street marches, rallies, demonstrations and strikes. Exactly the latter group of rights allows workers to correct the social, domestic and foreign policies of the ruling elite.

Workers can be passive during parliamentary campaigns and referendums. But they are always active in political struggle. Through rallies, demonstrations, they can satisfy own social demands, directly influence the activities of government. The possibility of such legal pressure allows to preserve the social peace in developed countries.

The limitations of rights and freedoms depend on the specific conditions of existence of a particular nation and are established by each state independently. However, it should be mentioned in Universal Declaration of Human Rights essay that this document sets a number of conditions: restrictions are established solely by law, and the law can be adopted with a view to ensure due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of citizens, meeting the requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic state.

The multitude of interpretations of the concept of human rights and its unscrupulous use by some members of society stipulate the need for external control. In 1950, Western European states signed the European Convention on Human Rights. The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights which deals with disputes between the parties to the Convention. A European Commission on Human Rights has also been established. And, in addition, there are numerous public organizations that try to control the state of affairs in this sphere.

The European system has established a completely new monitoring mechanism in the field of human rights protection and served as a model for the American (1969), African (1981) and CIS (1993) systems for the protection of human rights. The American system was established within the framework of the Organization of American States (OAS, 1948).

Mention in American Convention on Human Rights essay that this document, adopted in 1969, entered into force only in 1978. According to it, the Inter-American Commission (1960) and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1978) are responsible for monitoring the implementation of commitments undertaken by participating states.

argumentative essay about human rights

Description of modern situation in US for human rights research paper

American authorities do much to strengthen human rights and freedoms in the country. There are important successes. But at the same time, it's possible to say about a number of violations and shortcomings.

The death penalty

It should be written in “Death penalty violates human rights” essay that, unfortunately, this measure is preserved and applied in practice in the United States. For example, in 2014, 35 people were executed (lethal injection for all), including 2 women and 2 foreigners. The executions in 2014 were carried out in 7 states: 10 in Texas, 10 in Missouri, 8 in Florida, 3 in Oklahoma, 2 in Georgia, 1 in Arizona and in Ohio.

In the US, there is a trend towards a gradual abolition of the death penalty, although the number of people awaiting execution is very high. In 2015, there were 2,851 such persons.

Right to privacy

In 2013, a scandal with the National Security Agency, which collected personal data from millions of US citizens and shared this information with other government agencies, was widely discussed. It became known that the CIA paid $ 10 million to the telephone company to get access to the database of calls from citizens and foreigners.

An additional problem is the right of the FBI (since 2008) to conduct a kind of preliminary investigation (evaluation) of the activities of any person, even if there is no reason to suspect him of a crime. It’s worth noting in “Individual rights” essay that most "assessments" did not lead to any useful result: in 2009-2010, the FBI organized 82 thousand investigations of this type, but only in 3,5 thousand cases, a full-fledged investigations were started based on the obtained data.

Protection of informants

In the United States, the law on the protection of informants was established, which is aimed to protect public officials who reported about violations of legislation observed in their institutions. True, it is not intended for FBI employees.

Discrimination of minorities and fight against it

In 2014, the US Department of Justice tightened the ban on prejudice in attitude to religion, country of origin, gender and sexual orientation during the investigation.

In 1963-2012, the unemployment rate among blacks exceeded the same figure among whites and averaged 11.63%. The fight against racial discrimination is actively pursued now.  By 2010, the practice of teaching children of Indians in separate boarding schools was generally abolished.

Discrimination of minorities still exists in the United States, but a course was taken to eliminate it. In 2014, the Supreme Court supported the fight against unfair treatment at the universities of Michigan. Earlier, the same ban was passed in California, Washington and Florida.

One of the problems of the 2010-s was a sharp increase in the number of educational institutions with less than 10% of minority representatives. To combat segregation in schools, federal surveillance over the districts was practiced. Under the rule of B. Obama, there were 340 such school districts.

Crimes based on hatred

It may be stressed in the “Growing abuse of human rights” essay that, according to the FBI, 5.9 thousand crimes were committed due to hatred in 2013. 49.3% of them were motivated by racial hostility, 20.2% - by contempt of non-standard sexual orientation, 16.9% - by hatred for religious reasons, and 11.4% - by hatred on a national basis.

Police special forces

From 1983 to 2005, the number of settlements with their own police special forces increased sharply. In 1983, 13% of cities with a population of 25-50 thousand people had such units, and in 2005, they already accounted for 80%. In 1983, policemen conducted 3 thousand raids, and in 2005, already 50 thousand raids.

Rights of migrants

The Mexican border is a serious problem which may serve as one of human rights issues in a research paper. Between 2000 and 2013, 20 Mexicans and Mexican-born US citizens were killed by agents of law enforcement agencies. Six of them died on Mexican territory. During 1995-2006, the annual funding of protecting the Mexican border increased from $1.2 billion to $12.7 billion.

At the same time, migrant children have the right to education. In 1982, the US Supreme Court banned state authorities from expelling them from schools, regardless of their status. Even illegal migrants have the right to use free emergency medical care. In addition, illegal children born in the United States have the right to obtain American citizenship.

Unjust sentences

In 2013, 87 unfairly convicted people were released from prisons. There are persons who were previously sentenced to death among the rehabilitated people. From 1973 to 2015, 156 prisoners were released from the death row in the USA, including 6 in 2015. For example, in March 2015, all charges were dropped from Debra Milke (Arizona) who spent 22 years on death row.

Prisoners in the United States

The problem of the US is the world leadership in terms of the number of prisoners: at the end of 2013, there were 1571 thousand such people, although in 2008 - 2 304 115. The prisons are overcrowded in some states. For example, in 2011, there were 160,000 people in prisons of California, although they were designed for 110,000 prisoners. Private prisons and imprisonment for non-payment of fines are factors of heightened concern.

Labor discrimination

Since 1987, under the decision of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the refusal to allow a person to work in the company solely on the basis of his criminal past is regarded as discriminatory. In total, in the beginning of 2010-s, there were at least 800 posts which could not be legally obtained by persons previously accused for criminal offences.

One more problem is connected with lower wages of female workers. Several decrees were issued in April 2014 to solve it. One of them prohibited companies executing federal contracts to punish employees for reporting about their wages to colleagues. Another decree instructed the Department of Labor to develop standards according to which such organizations are required to report about workers' salaries, indicating their gender and race.

Both decrees concern 26 million employees - 20% of hired personnel. It should be mentioned in “Women rights are human rights” essay papers that, according to B. Obama, female citizens of the United States received about 23% less money than men.

Trade unions in the United States are so active that they sometimes demand mandatory membership from employees. But in 2014, in response to the lawsuit of residents of Illinois, the Supreme Court admitted that the worker has the right not to enter the union.

Abortion

In 1973, the Supreme Court legalized abortion throughout the United States. But by the beginning of 2010-s, in nine states, it was banned if the gestation period exceeded 20 weeks.

Participation of citizens in the formation of the judiciary

Write in an essay about the contribution of social justice for human rights that US citizens have a great influence on the formation of a professional judiciary. In 2014, in 22 states, the judges of the Supreme Court were elected. And in 16 states, they had to undergo rigorous procedures after the appointment.

Freedom of speech

The First Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees journalists immunity even if they use data obtained via violation of the law. The US Supreme Court ruled that they cannot be prosecuted for its publication and do not have to name the source of the information.

In the American newspapers, there is a post of public editor who is responsible for communication with readers and for maintaining ethics in the published materials. He is not subordinate to the editor-in-chief.

The search of a representative of the media was authorized by the Ministry of Justice only for exceptional cases and only after prior notice. In 2012, the Congress created a Public Interest Declassification Board.

At the same time, it should be mentioned in “Democracy and human rights” essay that there are restrictions on freedom of speech. In 2011, the presidential decree created the task force on internal threats to prevent information leaks and enhance monitoring of federal employees.

In 2014, two citizens were convicted for a video recording on which they threatened to kill policemen in the form of a rap. The court considered that the First Amendment cannot be applied in such a case. Statements about the right of states to self-determination are sometimes punishable. For example, activists of organizations advocating separation of states from the US are accused of banditry, of carrying out organized criminal activities and receive long terms of imprisonment.

Voting rights

Active voting right is granted to US citizens who are at least 18 years old. The age limit for passive electoral rights (the right to be elected) is usually somewhat higher. In the overwhelming majority of states, persons who have reached the age of 21 may be elected to the House of Representatives. In 2010, the right to be elected to the House of Representatives from the age of 18 was established in 17 states.

In the 2010-s, laws were passed in some states providing for the introduction of identity cards for voting. For example, in 2013, Texas adopted a law that established that the voter must show an identity card issued by the state. If it is absent, citizen can vote on condition that he will provide the document within 6 days. As shown by the research of specialists from Stanford and Wisconsin universities, violations in the voting process are very rare and are usually of a technical nature.

Note in voting rights essay that the principle of indirect elections of the President of the United States is often criticized. The number of residents aged from 18 years per one representative is very different from state to state. In 2012, in Wyoming, there were 142741 inhabitants of this age per one elector, and in Florida - 519075.

Since 2007, a trend to the rejection of such a system is observed. Eight states and the District of Columbia (with 132 votes in the US Electoral College) have adopted a treaty according to which their electors may vote not for the winner in their state but for the candidate who obtained the majority in the whole country.

Another reason for criticism is a non-inclusion of all registered candidates for the post of US President to the ballot. During the 2012 elections, the number of candidates included in the ballot varied from 2 to 32 depending on the state.

The serious problem is a large number of unregistered voters who are deprived of the possibility to influence the situation in the country. For example, in California, in early 2012, only 65.26% of residents having the right to vote were registered.

It’s worth stressing in “Should felons be allowed to vote?” essay that, in most states, persons convicted of crimes (about 5.9 million people) are also not entitled to vote in the presidential elections.

In 2014, the activities of international observers at the polling stations were fixed by law only in 4 states (Missouri, New Mexico, North Dakota and South Dakota), as well as in the District of Columbia.

Elections of the president, state governors and the US Congress usually take place on an alternative basis. However, low-level elections (state legislatures and below) are often carried out on the principle "one candidate for one seat". For example, in 2014, 12 senators were elected to the Illinois General Assembly on a non-alternative basis.

Corporal punishment in schools

In some schools, teachers are allowed to discipline students physically. Special sticks are provided for this purpose.

Freedom of movement

According to the sanctions that have been in effect since the 1960s, US citizens are prohibited from visiting Cuba (only with minor exceptions for relatives). People who have not received a special permit from the Department of the Treasury may be subject to sanctions (such as inspection and confiscation of items brought with them) at the port of entry.

The US State Department also sharply limits the opportunities to travel to Iraq and Lebanon. For a trip to Afghanistan, Iran, Libya and North Korea, special permits of the State Department and the Department of the Treasury should be obtained. Traveling to a country against which an American embargo acts may lead to arrest, fines and other penalties from the US government.

Violation of human rights outside the US

Emphasize in “Human rights in international relations” essay that many complaints are caused by the misconduct of American officials abroad. It is about the deaths of civilians as a result of the elimination of terrorist leaders in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia by drones. Most data on the number of victims of such operations are classified. But according to the estimates of the Council on Foreign Relations, in 2002-2013, 3,520 people died in these three countries, including 457 civilians.

Special claims were caused by so-called secret CIA prisons in which torture was used. The information about them was sometimes eliminated. For example, in 2005, the CIA destroyed videos with tortures of two Al-Qaeda members in a CIA prison.

The Guantanamo prison also caused criticism of human rights defenders due to ill-treatment of prisoners. Although in December 2013, the number of jailed persons was reduced to 162, and some of them did not want to be extradited to the country of citizenship.

Kidnapping

Here is scandalous example for argumentative essay about human rights: Iranian nuclear physicist Shahram Amiri was kidnapped by US intelligence services during the pilgrimage. According to scientist, the CIA officers tried to force him to agitate against Iran and offered $50 million. It was reported that a representative of American government, on condition of anonymity, said that the US received "useful information" from the Iranian nuclear physicist before he went home. The US authorities denied all accusations, indicating that the scientist arrived to the country of his own free will.

Pension support

In the US, partial pension is provided from 62 years old, full - from 65-67 years old (depending on the date of birth). There is also an additional pension for the spouses of pensioners. Since 2000, there are no restrictions on retirement pension for working pensioners. Pensions are paid to disabled people. Most employees of enterprises financed from the budget have the right to a special pension if they have 5-10 years of experience.

Health care

In 2010, 13% of American adults were not covered by health insurance. Nevertheless, public spending on medicine is enormous. In 2013, 37% of mandatory federal budget expenditure or 5.2% of GDP were allocated for it.

Religion

Mention in “Human rights in religion” essay that, in 2017, President Trump signed a decree imposing a 90-day ban on entry into the United States for citizens of six countries with predominantly Muslim population: Iran, Yemen, Libya, Syria, Somalia and Sudan. However, the federal courts decided to block this initiative. There were several such decrees, and until the last moment, the executive and judicial authorities criticized the legality of such measures.

Education

The United States provides free elementary and secondary education. At the state level, there is a system of benefits for universities receiving budgetary funding, as well as the practice of allocating grants. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act established a system of support for low-income families, funding of editions of educational literature and libraries. Since 1965, the only federal program "Head Start" prepares children from poor families for primary school (about one million kids annually).

Free food for the poor

By the end of 2013, coupons for the free purchase of certain products were used by 47.6 million Americans. This program was financed from the federal budget ($30.4 billion in 2007, $79.6 billion in 2013).

Protection against unemployment

In 2009-2014, the number of recipients of unemployment benefits in the US declined from 14.4 million to 2.4 million people.

The problem of violence with the use of weapons

The Second Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees the right to own weapons, which leads to a large number of victims. In 2007, 31,224 people died in a result of the use of weapons: 12,632 persons were killed, 17,352 - committed suicide, 613 - died in the accident, and 351 were killed by the police. In 2007, 66,678 people were injured by the use of weapons, including 44,466 firearm attacks and 679 persons harmed during police operations.

Essay writing tips

Sooner or later, each student encounters essay writing at school or university. This task is often met at exams and even at interviews when enrolling to various companies. Essentially, an essay is a statement of the author's point of view without the techniques of description and narrative.

It's worth considering a number of important rules if you want to write a really great paper. In many ways, our extended essay guide for human rights topics will help you and facilitate the task.

Since this is a serious academic work, the text should not contain any frivolities, humor and slang (except for citations). Try not to use stamps and write clearly (if you do not print the text on the computer). Of course, as far as possible, it is necessary to exclude the presence of mistakes in the text of the work. It's not just about spelling. Also pay attention to punctuation, speech, stylistics.

Human rights essay outline

To write a neat and ordered short essay on human rights, you should adhere to the standard structure:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Description of the problem and comment to it.
  3. Statement of the author's position.
  4. Arguments.
  5. Conclusion.

Sometimes only 5 paragraphs (3-4 sentences each) are enough to cover all these points. However, the same structure should be preserved in a long paper with 2-10 pages. You will simply provide more examples and arguments related to theses set forth.

Algorithm of essay writing

Compile a plan for the work on essay. This will help you to act in an organized way and to save time. Actions without planning and preparation often lead to panic and mistakes. We can advise a few universal techniques that will allow you to organize the work correctly:

  • Formulate the idea which you want to prove as accurately and in detail as possible. It is inappropriate to use the general concept of human rights as a topic. It is too broad for coverage in a short text. It is quite another thing if you write, for example, “Gay marriage is a matter of respect” human rights research paper. The essence of the work, the idea that you want to convey to the reader will be reflected in such heading.
  • Proceeding from the formulated thought, it is necessary to compile a couple of arguments (about 3), which will prove the correctness of your point of view. The arguments received from scientific, journalistic literature, legal acts are evaluated more highly.
  • There can be several theses in an essay. But all they must be subordinated to the main topic and have own proof.
  • Distributing arguments in the text, it's better to follow the degree of their credibility: from a less reliable to irrefutable argument.
  • How to conclude a human rights essay? In the end, there should be a final statement that confirms your thesis. Do not list all the arguments once again. Several phrases will be quite enough for this part of the paper.

Many students do not know that, in order to write a great introduction to a research paper about human rights, it's necessary to postpone it to the final stage. The main part with theses and arguments is usually compiled at the very beginning. Then experienced authors draw conclusions. After that, it's possible to see what the reader will come to after studying the paper. It's much easier to choose suitable words to attract his attention.

You need a short, vivid and interesting phrase for this. How to create a good hook for a human rights essay? Many writers use quotes from speeches of famous people, literary works and formulations from legislative acts. Interrogative form is also a good option. Even if a reader is not at all interested in the topic of the text, he automatically starts to reflect and wants to know the answer.

Titles for human rights essay can be chosen when the text is already written and checked. Compile a short and accurate phrase that will reflect the essence of the paper and intrigue the audience.

Criteria for evaluation

Here are the criteria by which the examiners evaluate such works:

  • The correctness of the wording of the central problem.
  • Originality and uniqueness of the idea. If the work is checked by the professor of law, you are unlikely to surprise him with a mere retelling of the content of international acts. But if you write, for example, an essay on improving the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and share own thoughts on possible ways to improve the existing situation, surely, such approach will be appreciated.
  • The observance of the semantic integrity of presentation and sequence of thoughts.
  • Punctuation, speech, spelling and stylistics.
  • The arguments of the author.

Do not be afraid to try!

A novice author may not know how to start an essay on human rights and stay in a state of passive waiting for a long time. Often this is due to the fact that students want to get the perfect result on the first try. Having composed a few sloppy phrases, they consider own work worthless and postpone it to the last moment.

Remember that even experienced literary experts create several versions of the text. To begin with, it is enough to highlight the main human rights essay ideas and reflect them on paper. Write everything that comes to mind without fear that your statements will sound ridiculous. You will sort them later.

The essay is a free genre. Nobody demands you to carry out a fundamental study. Your emotions, thoughts, worldviews should stay in the center of attention. So relax and be yourself. Let others know what you think about the chosen topic. You can refer to the thoughts of other people for the argumentation of the theses, but the conclusion of human rights essay should be written from the heart. Only in this way will you make the examiners believe in your rightness.

In the process of work, you will understand that essay writing is not only easy but also pleasant thing. This practice will help you discover new creative abilities and learn how to skillfully argue own point of view, which will be useful in the future. Good luck

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