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Diagnosis and Feedback at Adhikar

Case Study

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Diagnosis and Feedback at Adhikar


Case Analysis Form – Ivey

Background Information or Synopsis

  ‚úĒ Select the most relevant facts from the case which have a direct bearing on the issue at hand:

It appears that Adhikar was a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) founded and headed by the same person for a very long period. All the main leadership functions have been performed by Rajan Mishra, the establisher of the organization. Later, the investigation performed by the Organizational Development (OD) Practitioner showed that Rajan Mishra had no intention or willingness to delegate the decision-making and problem-solving responsibilities to his followers. This policy resulted in the absence of a strong leader when Mishra got appointed for a governmental post.

Other issues that Adhikar faced was a lack of clear mission and vision, which would get all team members together and make them work toward a common strategic goal. In addition, interviews conducted by the OD practitioner showed that there was no clear organizational structure since Mishra held the positon of Managing Trustee, and both local coordinators of different geographical units and coordinators of different programs had to report directly to Rajan Mishra. Moreover, there was a lack of cooperation and understanding between old and new coordinators. In addition, an even more frustrating detail was uncovered; it turned out that new coordinators received higher salaries than those who have been working at Adhikar for a long time. Such practice was deemed discriminatory and created tension and discontent within the team.

These managerial and policymaking issues turned out to be the main factors influencing the productivity of the organization. Therefore, the company would need to address these issues to initiate the process of change and improvement.

Immediate Issues/Symptoms
Explain (list from most to least severe) Who is involved? What is their role and responsibility in creating or resolving this issue? Impact on costs, quality, customer, service, or innovation

1. Lack of proper leadership in Adhikar

This is the most serious problem that Adhikar faces for the moment. A good leader would be able to smooth over the contradictions, resolve the conflicts, and effectively deal with issues at hand in order to build a better work environment within the organization. At the moment, there is no other formal leader at Adhikar, and, therefore, Rajan Mishra will be the main decision maker in the process of improvement. However, for it to be successful he will have to find a way to delegate his power to other people within the organization. The absence of efficient leadership will negatively affect the organization’s profitability, quality of service, work-related and innovation processes.


2. Lack of clear vision and mission

A good leader should also be responsible for determining the strategic mission and vision of an organization so that all employees would work together to achieve one common goal. A clear vision will potentially help the company boost its performance rates, and it is the leader’s responsibility to unite all the employees with one common vision or goal.


3. Lack of cooperation between coordinators

Cooperation between the coordinators has also been negatively affected by the lack of proper leadership. The actions of Mishra aimed at encouraging all coordinators to work as one single team had a completely opposite result since there was little trust between old and new coordinators. It is commonly known that the leader of the organization or its top managers should be responsible for organizing various team-building activities that would help to establish a friendlier and less competitive environment. If this problem is not solved by the leader, the performance rates of Adhikar will significantly decrease.


4. Issues related to rewards

When coordinators perform similar functions and fulfill the same amount of tasks, they expect to receive the same financial rewards for their work. It appeared that new coordinators received higher wages than the ones who have been working at the company for a long time. Mishra, as Adhikar’s leader, could be blamed for introducing such a discriminatory practice that would negatively impact the performance of old coordinators, although they have deeper knowledge and understanding of the NGO’s operation. A leader would also be responsible for addressing this issue and coming up with a clear and reasonable payment policy.


5. Lack of clarity regarding organizational structure

There was a structural confusion within Adhikar as coordinators of specific units and coordinators of different geographical locations had to directly report to the same person. This procedure created an overlap in responsibilities of regional and program units. Also, this could potentially create confusion regarding hierarchy and functionality within the company. It is evident that such problems negatively impact quality and cost-efficiency since different people fulfill the same tasks. It can be assumed that the core of this problem was the leader’s inability to introduce a clear and a more effective organizational structure. 

Root Cause/Basic Underlying Issues
Explain (list from most to least severe) Who is involved? What is their role and responsibility in creating or resolving this issue? Impact on costs, quality, customer service, or innovation

The root cause of all immediate issues was lack of effective leadership within the NGO. It turned out to have a considerable impact on all other issues existing in Adhikar. Such an improper leadership style has negatively impacted all operations, cost-efficiency, quality of services, implementation of innovations, and overall organization’s performance rates.

Although all employees view Rajan Mishra as a charismatic and dynamic leader, he was not able to avoid and/or address issues existing within the organization. Basing on the trait theory of leadership, a good and effective leader would need to have specific traits and qualities that would enable him/her to drive organization’s success. However, the example of this case study clearly shows that personal qualities of the leader did not help him overcome the challenges and cope with the problems existing in Adhikar.

It seems that Mishra decided to become a laissez-faire leader who did not interfere with the daily course of action and allowed coordinators to make their own decisions. But at the same time, Mishra was an autocratic leader as he did not delegate much power to his subordinates, and thus he himself was responsible for performing various functions in Adhikar. This strategy turned into a failure when he got assigned to a governmental post and tried to distance himself from being the organization’s leader. All of the aforementioned facts prove that the lack of proper leadership and weak policies aimed at dealing with challenges are the core causes of all the managerial and functionality issues existing within the organization.

Analysis of Case Data

Cause & Effects The main causes are: lack of proper leadership in Adhikar; absence of clear vision and mission within the organization; deficiency of cooperation and understanding between coordinators; unclear hierarchy and functionality; difference in the rewards received by the coordinators. These problems negatively impact the overall Adhikar’s performance, quality of operation, cost-efficiency, etc.
Constraints The main constraint is an absence of a strong leader who would make all the necessary decisions and introduce changes to the ways of Adhikar’s operation. Mishra distanced himself from being the leader, and this decision of his created the main constraint for Adhikar.
Opportunities The key opportunity is to choose a new leader who would improve the organizational structure and the payment system, simplify the functionality of each worker to eliminate the overlap of responsibilities, encourage coordinators work together as a single team, etc.
Quantitative Data The only case of addressing to the quantitative data in this study was the one that new coordinators received higher wages than old coordinators.
Qualitative Data There has been a lot of qualitative data presented in this case study in order to prove the fact that quality of the NGO’s operation could have been higher if proper changes had been introduced. The best way to resolve the issues Adhikar is facing is to employ a clear vision and mission statement, get all coordinators to work together as a single team, eliminate all the discriminatory practices, etc.
Course Concepts Relevant to the Case

Cooperation and understanding between coordinators can be improved by conducting professional training and teambuilding activities, so that the coordinators learn the pains and needs of each other, find out more about each other’s personal interests and hobbies, etc. These simple measures will help to build a stronger team aimed at achieving a common goal.

This goal should be introduced by the organization’s leader based on how he and his subordinates see the NGO’s future and what values they consider to be prevalent. Also, key middle-level managers should be determined and appointed to lead specific divisions (programs or geographical units) so that all coordinators can effectively report their actions and plans to their supervisors and not to a single person.

The main concept that can be applied to deal with the challenges existing in Adhikar is the concept of power delegation so that senior- and middle-level managers, supervisors, and coordinators can participate in the decision-making and problem-solving processes.


Describe alternatives to resolve root cause/basic issues.

Issue Considerations/Support

1. Lack of proper leadership in Adhikar

One of the options is to appoint Pia Mishra as the organization’s leader. Another alternative is to appoint Ms. Devi as the leader since many people see her leading the NGO. Another option is that Rajan Mishra leaves the government and focuses on introducing changes in Adhikar.

2. Lack of clear vision and mission

One option is to determine organization’s mission and vision; another option is to keep working the same way as the company has been during the last years of operation. Also, some people can work towards reaching one strategic goal, while the others are focused on reaching another one.

3. Lack of cooperation between coordinators

Teambuilding activities can help in improving cooperation between coordinators; another option is to devide the coordinators into two separate teams that are going to be working towards different strategic goals. This way they won’t have to work as a single team.

4. Issues related to rewards

If old coordinators are not satisfied, one option is to raise their salaries, and another option is to relieve them of some duties. This decision will justify the fact that their rewards are lower.

5. Lack of clarity regarding organizational structure

One option is to separate program units from geographical ones and make coordinators report to different people; another option is to remove the program units’ division and separate by geographical location only. Also, Adhikar may remove geographical division altogether so that coordinators would be responsible for certain programs only.


Decision Creteria
What are the criteria that are important to making this decision? Justification for choosing this criterion


There’s a need to introduce a clear organizational structure so that functions of different units are not overlapped.

Productivity & Employee morale

Coordinators should receive the same wages to remain motivated to work together as a team and increase the organization’s performance.

Growth rate

A new leader would be able to bring a clear vision of future goals, and it will have a positive impact on organization’s growth rate and overall performance.


Actions of different units are not coordinated, and units do not work together to achieve one common goal. Defining this goal will bring synergy and improve overall performance of the organization.


Currently, there is no leader who motivates his subordinates to achieve more. A leader should check and monitor performance of coordinators and motivate them to reach for greater results.


Alternative Assessment


Note: You are not required to use 4 criteria or identify 5 alternatives; alter the table as required for your analysis.


Alternative Decision Criteria
  Criterion 1 Criterion 2 Criterion 3 Criterion 4
Appointing Pia Mishra as a leader

Productivity & Employee morale

Growth rate


Increasing wages of old coordinators Costs (negative impact on costs)

Productivity & Employee morale


Introducing teambuilding activities Costs (negative impact on costs)

Productivity & Employee morale


Removing geographical organizational division Productivity

Growth rate

- -



Recommenation Justification for choosing this alternative


Increasing wages of old coordinators and introducing teambuilding activities are good options that can be chosen to increase the company’s performance, but Adhikar will have to spend extra funds on organizing activities and increasing wages of old coordinators. Removing the geographical division sounds as a good option as it will help Adhikar to increase overall productivity and growth rate. However, the best alternative is to appoint Pia Mishra to the chief position since she will most probably energetically participate in various activities and introduce positive changes to the organizational structure. This decision will lead to the increase of willingness to cooperate and improve mutual understanding between the coordinators since Pia Mishra used to be a coordinator herself, and therefore she knows how everything works in Adhikar.

Implementation Plan
What? Who? When? Resources Monitor/Audit

Short Term (<90days)


Delegate the majority of leadership functions to Pia Mishra


Rajan Mishra should delegate most of his functions to his daughter Now Time and efforts This process should be monitored by Ms. Devi as she has a great experience and understanding of all operations

Medium Term (3 months – 2 years)


Pia Mishra should introduce new organizational structure, mission & vision, etc.


Pia Mishra Right after she learns how everything within the organization works and develops a clear plan of actions

More funds

(if needed), new employees and coordinators


Long Term (over 2 years)

OD practitioner should assess the company’s performance, success and failures again

OD practitioner In about 6 months after the new leader introduces all organizational changes OD practitioner’s salary, time and efforts of coordinators (spent for interviews)

Results of the OD practitioner should be monitored and assessed by Pia Mishra 


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