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Research Draft: Discussion Part

APA Research Paper

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Research Draft: Discussion Part

 

 

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Research Draft: Discussion Part

Discussion of the Results

The results’ analysis determines that the dominant type of employees is the instrumental type. Such workers are characterized by material preferences for the value side of labor activity and the degree of remuneration for the performance. The instrumental type prefers clear objectives and financial stimuli in the organizational culture. The basic idea of motivation for this type is the monetary reward since the purpose of people's work is to obtain benefits through the income that work provides. The second type is materialistic, for which negative and primary forms of stimulation are preferred, including paternalism. Since the study deals with organizational culture’s impact on the hospitality employees, it is necessary to determine whether there is a type among workers focused not on material remuneration but the content of labor functions. There are about 20% of people of this type. Such workers seek to prove their ability to do the job. For them, organizational, moral, and monetary incentives are effective.

The surveyed organization does not develop the framework of internal motivation for employees' prospects, which are expressed career building opportunity. A career growth is an important motivator for employees who seek to realize their professional and personal potential. It is necessary to highlight this organizational culture feature and consider the career growth as a motivator. The organization employs mainly middle-aged people with reasonably long work experience, focused on receiving material rewards: the opportunity to build a career that will allow employees to recognize merits from the organization and the increase in their material well-being, which is precisely what the instrumental type employees prevailing in the organization need. At the same time, a career is not a material motivator.

For the organization, these features ensure that employees will strive to improve their qualifications to obtain higher education since the possibility of moving up the career ladder within the organization implies an increase in the level of qualifications and education. The development of the reserve should be focused on the rotation of personnel, that is, on personnel movements within the organization, allowing the use of personnel reserves to form a new circle of managers. This is because workers of retirement and pre-retirement age occupy some leading specialists' and managerial positions. These employees are an asset for the organization; however, they may retire and create the void in occupational pool, as the organization does not have talents to cover vacant positions. The solution is to integrate some internal educational programs so that potential leaders will obtain the necessary skills and expertise to replace those who can retire in the nearest future.

Besides, career-oriented employees will form a stable workforce. There will be fewer layoffs, and the staff turnover rate will decrease. According to the study results, the internal leaders have advantages over those who are hired under external recruitment systems as they know the specifics of the organization, have the necessary experience from lower positions to higher job qualifications, know insights of the performed labor functions and working conditions, and share the values of the organization. It is necessary to consider the following points for a person to be included in the personnel reserve: level of education, length of service in the organization, efficiency and productivity of work, and business qualities.

As shown by the data on the analysis of the existing system of organizational culture, employees' communication with each other is poorly expressed in the organization. On the one hand, in a male team, the need for communication is much lower than in a female team. However, stimulating communication allows management to better understand their employees and their problems in various areas, both private and professional. That is why it is recommended to create a communication field that supports collaboration between employer and employees and maximize the moral and psychological climate in the team, which, as the employees themselves note, is not very favorable now.

It is recommended to allocate a particular room for employees to relax, spend free time, and discuss work problems to ensure interaction between them. The integration of regular team meetings should resolve conflicts and long psychological pauses caused by employees' negative attitudes towards each other in some cases. Such activities currently exist as a planning meeting or "five-minute stand-up," which has too short duration and does not address substantial number of problems and concerns. During the discussion sessions, employees can discuss and solve fundamental issues, receive first-hand information from managers, and avoid gossips and unconfirmed information, which in most cases lead to misunderstandings and problems. For the competent creation of a communication field, it is necessary to involve a psychologist, whose primary responsibility will be to improve the morale and psychological climate. This practice is typical for many organizations that develop personnel policy following new technologies for working with personnel.

Alongside the communication improvement, the organization should develop clear and precise reward system that will motivate employees to contribute to the company’s success. The competition system will allow employees to receive recognition from the organization and management to feel needed and valuable, which will be confirmed by the receipt of bonuses in various forms - certificates, praises, and awards. The competitions' objectives will be to reward employees who have achieved the best performance, formulate a positive attitude towards the performance of labor duties, and cultivate of a sense of responsibility for the results of work.

The effect from collaboration, communication, and healthy competition should increase if the recommended measures of non-material incentives are integrated into organizational culture:

- improvement of the moral and psychological climate increases workers’ positive attitude when performing their duties,

- the number of conflicts decreases, which allows employees to solve production problems and increase the efficiency of decisions jointly,

- employees accept the value system. They provide feedback in response to the organization's concern about them as assets that bring profit and as individuals, each of which has personal interests.

Conclusion

Organizational culture is based on knowledge of a person's psychological and physiological needs. Therefore, in management theory, it is necessary to analyze employees' existing motives for the effectiveness of management. They assist managers and organization in understanding the reasons for choosing goals at different stages of labor activity and use this knowledge in employees’ motivation. The manager must understand the motives of labor behavior and the nature of motivation, which will influence the efficiency of activities within the organization and create conditions for increasing personnel efficiency. Motivation is associated with the process of stimulation, which can be seen as a practical impact on staff. Motive is the beginning of a person's actions, which is a psychological factor, but this factor must be provided by organization to point out the reasons why specific activity should be done. Motive and incentive influence employees, prompting them to perform actions; they can be viewed as two sides of the same phenomenon. Motivation activates the professional and personal development of employees. The motive comes from a person. Incentives force people to act in the organization's best interests.

Non-material motivation is not focused on the use of funds or rewards but considers the psychological characteristics of the team as a whole and specific employees within it. In such a system, the individual approach to each employee is essential. If for one person, encouragement from the boss is an important motivator, then encouragement can be considered as a usual attitude in the framework of work duties. The complexity of developing a non-material motivation system is determined by the fact that the manager must choose the type of motivation that suits a particular employee. The selected methods are individual. They cannot be applied equally to all employees without exception since they can either give a different effect or not show an effect for some employees, so it is essential to determine the rules and approaches to developing a system of non-material motivation as an integral part of the organizational culture.

References

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. (2020). African commission on human and people’s rights. https://www.achpr.org/

Amnesty International. (2020). The State of African Regional Human Rights Bodies and Mechanisms 2019-2020. World ReliefWeb, https://reliefweb.int/report/world/state-african-regional-human-rights-bodies-and-mechanisms-2019-2020.

Bitker, B. V. (1971). Application of the United Nations’ universal declaration of human rights within the United States, DePaul Law Review, 21.

Heyns, C. & Killander, M. (2006). The African regional human rights system. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228150162_The_African_Regional_Human_Rights_System.

Council of Europe. (n.d.) Legal protection of human rights. https://www.coe.int/en/web/compass/legal-protection-of-human-rights.

Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (1978). Race and racial prejudice. https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/raceandracialprejudice.aspx.

International Justice Resource Center. (n.d.). Inter-American human right system.  https://ijrcenter.org/regional/inter-american-system/#:~:text=The%20Inter%2DAmerican%20System%20for,of%20American%20States%20(OAS).

Inter-America Commission on Human Rights. (n.d.) Protection of minority rights in the Inter-American human rights system. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuideMinorities5en.pdf.

Howie, E. (2018). Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 28.

IACHR. (2011). Situation of people of African descent in the Americas. Organization of American States. https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/afro-descendants/docs/pdf/afros_2011_eng.pdf

Ssenyonjo, M. (2011). The African regional human rights system brill. https://brill.com/view/title/20860.

OAS. (2020). IACHR calls on the United States to implement structural reforms in the institutional systems of security and justice to counter historical racial discrimination and institutional racism. http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2020/196.asp.

Oyama v. California, 332 U.S. 633 (1948), Justia Law. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/332/633/.

Mandalaywala, T.M., Tai, C., & Rhodes, M. (2020). Children’s use of race and gender as cues to social status. PLoS One. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307787/.

United Nations. The Regional Human Rights System, 4/6 United Nations. https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/comp303.html.

World Health Organization. (n.d.) International legal framework for protection. https://www.who.int/hac/network/interagency/a2_international_legal_framework_for_protection.pdf.

UNICEF. (2020). Women’s and children’s rights: Making the connection. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Women-Children_final.pdf.

UNICEF. (n.d.). Child rights and why they matter. https://www.unicef.org/child-rights-convention/child-rights-why-they-matter.

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