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Writing a political and governmental corruption essay

Essay paper writing

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Corruption poses a great threat to society and the state as a whole. It affects the morals and values of nations. Therefore, this problem is one of the most topical nowadays. It attracts the attention of politicians, sociologists, and activists of various organizations and movements. If you are concerned by this vice as well and have to write an eradication of corruption essay, the information below will be very helpful.

Corruption Essay 1

How to start an article on corruption?

Your what is political corruption essay should begin with the description of venal practices. As the definition of corruption is quite vague, it can be interpreted in a rather ambiguous way. The thing is that boundaries of the moral/immoral, legal/illegal, condemned/approved actions are largely blurred. Nevertheless, modern corruption is a complex legal phenomenon that cannot be qualified by a specific norm of the criminal code. Unfortunately, it can be said with certainty that such violations are observed in all spheres of public life. Include this fact while writing about the importance of your essay on corruption.

The legislation of most countries considers corruption as gaining profit from the position in the state power system by any means and under any conditions as well as the deliberate use of the property and non-property benefits for the unlawful enrichment by those authorized to perform public functions.

The use of official position for one’s benefit can be observed in the following examples which you can include in your political power and corruption essay:

  • Getting property of other people by taking it away against the will of the owners.
  • Misuse of official position that implies violation of the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens or undermining the authority of the government.
  • Direct participation of officials, civil servants, or deputies in commercial activities for gaining personal or corporate benefits.

The reasons for venal practices to describe in corruption essay

Before writing the actual essay on such a serious topic, you should take a more detailed look at different cases of corruption and their causes.

Corruption Essay 2

Personal interest

Extortion (or racket) is practiced by people possessing the power to prevent someone from obtaining licenses, special permits, or any other services provided under the authority of an official.

Collusion arises under the same conditions as extortion. However, you have to admit in any of the political corruption articles that these two notions should be distinguished because collusion always is beneficial for both parties. For example, in exchange for a bribe, a customs inspector may understate the value of imported goods and thereby reduce the sum of money which the importing company must pay.

In general, the causes of corruption essay may convey the following idea: the management principle itself creates a potential opportunity for bribery, making the benefits prevail over risks. This problem is repeatedly reproduced in the bureaucratic apparatus of different countries.

Causes of high corruption to be incluided in essay about politicians

In addition, there are some more objective circumstances that contribute to the spread of high- level corruption that you can mention in your article on government corruption:

  • Ignorance or misunderstanding of laws by the population, which allows officials to arbitrarily interfere with the implementation of bureaucratic procedures or overstate the payments. That’s why an essay on role of citizens in preventing corruption will be quite relevant.
  • Unstable political situation in the country.
  • Professional incompetence of state officials.
  • Political patronage that leads to the formation of secret agreements weakening the mechanisms of control over corruption.

Hypotheses about the causes of high corruption

There are several more assumptions which may be considered as causes of the corruption in essay on political corruption:

  • Low wages in the public sector compared to the private sector;
  • State regulation of the economy;
  • The state monopoly on certain services;
  • Isolation of the bureaucratic elite from the people;
  • Economic instability;
  • Cultures of some countries in general.

To date, these hypotheses are not proved. Therefore, you may consider presenting different points of view in a speech on corruption for students. And if you have any problems with speech writing, you can ask our professional writers for a qualitative help.

For example, the increase in wages in the public sector compared to the private business does not lead to an immediate reduction in corruption. Nevertheless, this contributes to a gradual improvement of bureaucratic efficiency and has a positive effect in the long run. Just for your information: in countries with the lowest level of bribery, the salaries of officials are 3-7 times higher than the ones in the manufacturing sector.

One of the most contradictory political corruption essay topics is whether the state regulation of markets has an impact on the level of corruption. Supporters of the free market indicate that a diminishing role of the state and increased competition contribute to a reduction in bribery, as this weakens the opportunity to gain market dominance through the protectorate and seek personal benefits.

There are also a number of objections to this argument which should be mentioned in a paper about the causes and effects of corruption on society:

  • First, the private sector is not always able to offer a satisfactory solution to problems, and in such cases, most people believe that government intervention is justified. This, in turn, creates the prerequisites for unscrupulous supervision and collection of big taxes. Thus, complete elimination of corruption is impossible even in an open economy.
  • Secondly, studies show that in the countries with liberal democracy, the level of bribery does not depend on whether the leadership of the country adheres to a neoliberal or social democratic ideology. Moreover, in many countries with low corruption level, there are relatively high taxes and public spending (Canada, Netherlands, Scandinavian countries, Finland).

Your best essay on corruption prevention strategies implemented by different countries

No matter how many theories you describe in your corruption in political life essay, do not forget to include the real examples.

In one form or another, bribery is quite a common and multifaceted phenomenon. The world community seeks to unite efforts to avert and combat it. Currently, measures to prevent corruption are presented in different programs:

  • The UN Global Programme against Corruption;
  • The UN Declaration against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions;
  • The UN Convention against Corruption.

Experts examine and summarize the experience of many states and promote international cooperation. Accordingly, conferences, lectures, and seminars are held on the UN and Council of Europe conventions.

In how to stop corruption essay, you can mention that cooperation with other countries helps in developing effective means of fighting bribery in the civil service. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired level of economic growth, the country’s government should take into account world experience in dealing with this problem as well as enact appropriate laws.

Corruption Essay 3

Information to be included in the USA government corruption essay

Having significant experience in confronting bribery, the United States is among the countries that have coped with this problem successfully.

In the US Constitution adopted in 1787, corruption was described as one of the gravest crimes. It can even become a reason for the President’s impeachment.

In the second part of the XX century, the government decided to use special methods to fight corruption. In particular, the FBI specialists have developed and successfully carried out the operation called ABSCAM. FBI agents were introduced into corrupt networks under the guise of mediators of Arab millionaires.

They offered high-ranking government officials and congressmen big bribes for promoting their commercial interests. As a result of the operation, within a year, more than two hundred state employees were dismissed for crimes. This is a perfect example of an effective strategy to be described in the political corruption in America essay.

The beginning of a real fight against corruption in the United States dates back to the 70s. The scandal associated with the activities of the American company Lockheed in Japan, which led to the resignation of the government of the country, was a great shock for Americans and prompted the lawmakers to adopt a Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in 1977. This document outlawed bribing foreign officials by American citizens and companies.

However, this law had brought unexpectedly negative consequences. In particular, in one of the studies published in the journal The Economist in 1995, it was stated that in 1994-1995, American companies lost about 100 contracts abroad for a total approximate sum of $45 billion because some other firms continued to give bribes. Moreover, according to the report of the US Department of Commerce prepared in 1996 with the assistance of special services, American firms suffered losses estimated at $11 billion because their rivals resorted to corruption. On this basis, a campaign was launched in the United States to force other OECD countries to declare bribery of foreign officials to be a crime.

At that time, at the OECD negotiations, the Clinton administration announced taking anti-bribery measures as one of the priorities tasks of the US Department of State. Thus, the Americans wanted to be with their competitors on equal terms.

At the beginning of the third millennium, in order to strengthen measures to combat corruption and assist American companies in solving this problem at the international level, the US Department of Commerce created a hotline. This way, any firm got the opportunity to report on cases of bribery when concluding international contracts.

Italian experience of fighting corruption in political corruption essay

Another vivid example of the effective fight against bribery that should be mentioned in politics and corruption essay is Operation Clean Hands conducted in Italy in the early 1990s. The campaign showed staggering results.

In the Apennines, a cult of offerings and gifts prevails, so bribery was not considered a serious crime in the minds of the residents. But by the beginning of the 1990s, the corruption in the business sector had made the political system ineffective and provoked a crisis.

In Italy, entrepreneurs used to finance political campaigns for their own benefits. Gradually, strong corrupt ties between businessmen and politicians had become a norm. Some of the officials even established a fixed fee for their services. For example, one company from Calabria monthly handed over 4.5% of the profits for party needs. With the help of bribed politicians, entrepreneurs often eliminated their competitors.

The corruption market was shaken up by a bribe of 14 million liras. When Mario Chiesa, director of the Milan boarding house for the elderly PioAlbergoTrivulzio, was caught for it, no one gave this event much importance. But studying the printouts of the suspect’s account activity, the investigator Antonio Di Pietro was very surprised. The wealth of the Mario Chiesa was explained by the fact that he was a member of the ruling Socialist Party. Eventually, Chiesa began to disclose the names of his comrades-in-arms one by one, and the domino principle worked out.

The results of Operation Clean Hands are impressive: more than 500 politicians received prison sentences, including Senator Giulio Andreotti and Prime Minister Bettino Craxi. About 20 thousand people were under investigation. To avoid persecution, more than 80% of officials quit the country.

The operation also influenced the business sphere. Employees of Fiat, Olivetti, and other corporations were kept under control of the investigating bodies. Convicted bribers were not only sentenced to imprisonment but were also deprived of property.

State institutions such as hospitals, courts, and police stations were opened in the expropriated houses. It was proudly written on the bottles of wine that it was made from grapes grown on land expropriated from the mafia. The money of some of the corrupt officials was spent on the social sector and agriculture. You can tell about this case in how to eradicate corruption essay.

Corruption Essay 4

Hong Kong

One more example that can be described in how to prevent corruption essay is Hong Kong, one of the world’s leading financial capitals. To achieve such considerable economic success, the authorities spent thirty years and made enormous efforts.

In the early 1970s, Hong Kong was a hotbed of crime. Racket, drug trafficking, and prostitution flourished under the wing of the corrupt police. Then the authorities took radical measures; they abolished the useless anti-corruption service that was part of the interior ministry. Instead,

Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) was established in 1973. It began to report directly to the governor of Hong Kong.

Realizing a ramified nature of corruption in Hong Kong, the ICAC first hunted for key players. As a result, many of the most influential officials were imprisoned, leaving the criminal world without their bosses. This fact can be included in your essay on corruption in public life as well.

ICAC employees could easily join the ranks of bribe-takers, but the government took all the preventive measures. Salaries in the ICAC are 10% higher than the incomes of other citizens. Moreover, the organization is overseen by public committees consisting of officials, businessmen, and representatives of the intellectual elite.

The work of the ICAC proved to be effective within a year. In 1974, the number of bribery cases brought to court doubled compared to the previous year – 218 against 108. Now, Hong Kong is among the countries with the lowest level of corruption. So, you will not be wrong, focusing your attention on ICAC experience in corruption essay for students.

Corruption Essay 5

Singapore

Singapore is among the countries which succeeded in defending corruption. As the country gained independence in 1965, it was forced to solve many problems simultaneously. One of them was corruption.

However, work towards achieving this goal began a little earlier. The country’s meager budget did not allow the government to conduct an expensive campaign. The first step was the change of legislation. In 1960, the Prevention of Corruption Act (ROCA) was adopted. It pursued two goals: to neutralize corruptive sources and tighten the punishment for bribery.

Even before that, a special body was created – the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), whose head was directly subordinate to the Prime Minister of the country. But before the adoption of the ROCA, the agency’s work did not bring tangible results. Still, ROCA eliminated several serious obstacles:

  • First, it gave a clear and comprehensive definition of all corruption types. The bribe-takers could no longer beat the rap, changing the word “bribe” to “gratitude” or “gift.”
  • Secondly, ROCA regulated the work of the agency and gave it serious powers.
  • Thirdly, it increased the prison terms for bribery.

Having received more powers, the bureau got permission to detain potential bribe-takers, search their houses and offices, check bank accounts, etc.

Since the second half of the 1980s, the government started work on improving its own bureaucratic system. Salaries were raised considerably for officials because high incomes were supposed to prevent them from taking bribes. Now, the wages of high-ranking officials reach $20-25 thousand per month. This is an exemplary practice to describe in the prevention of corruption essay. Local bureaucracy of Singapore is considered one of the most effective in the world, offering the most highly-paid job opportunities. The earnings of officials are even higher than the salaries of US employees holding the same posts.

Corruption Essay 6

Conclusions

Your money in politics essay should put forward the idea that no society with a high level of bribery can be considered prosperous. Even in rather difficult situations, the authorities of the above-mentioned countries were able to take effective measures to combat crime. Their experience is an invaluable example for other states.

However, no strategy can be copied in its original form due to the cultural and economic differences of each nation. But the analysis of all four campaigns makes it possible to understand the main thing: taking appropriate actions are required to fight bribery. While developing an anti-corruption program, each state should understand its weaknesses and strengths, use available resources, and attract competent experts.

We hope that the information in this article inspired you to write a quality essay about politicians and venal practices. Now you have enough reliable facts that will serve as a basis for a persuasive academic paper. However, remember that the list of historical events and terms from the textbooks will not be enough. The essay should contain your attitude to the problem. Do not hesitate to express your own opinion, put contradictory questions, and give your own original answers. Whether it’s about a short article on corruption or extensive work with several chapters, demonstrate your creativity skill while compiling it. Good luck!

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