June 4, 2018
At all stages of development, a humanity was closely connected with the surrounding world. But since the emergence of a highly industrialized society, a dangerous interference of people in nature has grown sharply. A consumption of non-renewable raw materials intensifies. More and more arable lands drop out of the economy as cities and factories are built on them.
As a result of an increase in the population, intensive industrialization and urbanization of our planet, economic pressure began to exceed the ability of ecological systems to self-purification and regeneration. A natural cycle of substances in the biosphere was disrupted. The health of present and future generations of people is under threat! This is one of the most important and frequent global warming thesis statement ideas.And how to write a research paper thesis we will discuss below.
Ecological problems of the modern world are not only acute but also multifaceted. They appear in virtually all branches of material production and relevant to all regions of the planet.
The Earth's biosphere is currently subject to serious anthropogenic impact. There are many processes worsening the ecological situation on the planet. In particular, the world is getting warmer and humanity is largely responsible for this, experts say. But many factors affecting climate change have not yet been studied. Scientists and students analyze this topic thoroughly. If you also got a global warming essay assignment, the facts listed below may be useful for your academic work.
Causes of warming to be described in research papers on climate change
The greenhouse effect did not appear today. Without it, the temperature of the atmospheric surface layers would be on average 30 degrees below the actual one. However, in the last decades, the content of some greenhouse gases in the air has grown very much: carbon dioxide - more than 1/3, methane - in 2.5 times.
There are also new substances with a greenhouse absorption spectrum which simply did not exist earlier - primarily chlorine and fluorine hydrocarbons including the notorious freons.
A conclusion about the connection between warming and air composition change is quite obvious. Moreover, the reason for the rapid growth in the amount of greenhouse gases is also clear: our entire civilization, from bonfires of primitive hunters to modern gas stoves and cars, is based on the rapid oxidation of carbon compounds the final product of which is CO2.
Human activity is associated with an increase in the content of methane (rice fields, livestock, leaks from gas pipelines) and nitrogen oxides. Perhaps, people do not yet have a noticeable direct effect only on the content of water vapor in the atmosphere.
Among the global environmental difficulties facing humanity, the problem of CO2 is one of the most controversial. Many consider it to be imaginary, far-fetched. As yet, there are no real signs of global warming which is forecasted by some climatologists and physicists. In their opinion, it should happen because of the accumulation of carbon dioxide of anthropogenic origin in the atmosphere.
In the Quaternary period, which includes our time, the content of CO2 in the air is very low. But the pace of accumulation of this gas in the atmosphere is unprecedentedly high. That’s why most of climate change essay topics have a cautionary character.
Until recently, most researchers considered the combustion of fossil fuels as almost the single reason for the CO2 increase in the air in the XIX and XX centuries. Today, there are deforestation, agriculture, overgrazing and a number of other violations among the processes that violate the reproduction of the soil and vegetation cover of the Earth.
You should pay the special attention to this phenomenon in your reasons of global warming essay. Deforestation during construction, mining, creation of reservoirs and especially transformation of forest lands into agricultural ones is considered the most important factor leading to a non-renewable loss of organic matter in the biosphere. Up to 25% of the carbon dioxide got into the atmosphere due to the deforestation. The reduction of a green cover of the planet and the burning of fuel cause an equal damage on our planet.
Degradation of forests occurs on the background of excessive recreation activities and tourism, air pollution and in a number of other cases (intensive grazing, flooding of the terrain, drainage of nearby swamps, etc.). Observations have established that even an insignificant load causes changes in the soil-vegetation cover.
Soil compression carried out in forest parks and reserves leads to a decrease in the mass of roots due to which the tree’s growth stops. They become smaller. The branches are thin and short.
Mechanical damage to forests leads to the development of diseases and pests. When natural territories are visited by large groups of people, the lower tiers of vegetation die, a soil litter is trampled and a humus horizon suffers. Organic matter is reduced by 50% or more in parking and recreational areas.
The forest degradation is very noticeable with significant air pollution. Fly ash, coal and coke dust clog the pores of leaves, reduce the access of light to plants and weaken the process of assimilation.
Poisoning of the soil by the emissions of metal/arsenic dust in combination with superphosphate or sulfuric acid affects the root system delaying its growth. Sulfurous anhydrite is toxic to plants. The vegetation is completely destroyed under the influence of the smokes and gases of copper smelters in close proximity.
Significant damage to the forests is caused by the acid precipitation connected with the spread of sulfur compounds into hundreds and thousands of kilometers. A great decrease in forest biomass is apparently also due to fires.
In our time, agriculture is a powerful process leading to a rapid reduction of humus resources in soil and the release of CO2. You may choose its influence on general warming as one of climate change research topics.
The most of humus is lost in a result of strong erosion and weathering. In addition, the cultivated lands lose this element due to its oxidation during the plowing and burning of vegetation in the framework of the slash-and-burn agriculture system.
The constant loss of humus is observed when nitrogen stocks are depleted in the soil. In developed countries, nitrogen depletion is compensated by using mineral nitrogen fertilizers and cultivation of leguminous crops.
Excessive grazing in tundra, forests, meadows and especially in deserts leads to the destruction of the land and also should be mentioned in the causes of global warming essay. At present, overgrazing is particularly damaging in Africa, Eurasia, Latin America and Australia. Simultaneously with the desertification, the soil with its organic matter is gradually removed.
Drainage leads to the oxidation of organic substances accumulated in peat bogs. So this phenomenon also should be in your global climate change essay outline. When removing 1-meter layer of marsh water from 1-hectare area, tens of tons of dissolved organic matter are released.
Irrigation of lands
In some cases, this practice causes soil losses as a result of irrigation erosion. At the same time, the correct melioration of poor desert areas increases the resources of organic matter in the soil. This is one of the most lively discussed environmental science research paper topics. Currently, 0.2-0.3 million hectares of irrigated land are annually turned into wastelands due to salinization and waterlogging. After that, they are most often quickly destroyed.
Construction and growth of cities, creation of communications and mining work generally lead to complete destruction of the soil and vegetation cover, although parks are often formed on the areas subjected to these processes. But this solves the problem only partially.
Every year, construction works and mining operations destroy the soil and vegetation cover on an area of 5-10 million hectares that leads to a decrease in the organic matter stocks of the biosphere. Even the most approximate calculation will give the total figure of annual losses equal to several hundred million tons of organic matter.
Possible consequences: points to discuss in argumentative global warming essay
There would not be so much global warming essay examples if humanity was not wary of possible consequences of this phenomenon. If current tendencies will remain, the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere will double by 2060 (compared with the pre-industrial level) and fourfold by the end of the century. This is a very disturbing fact because the life cycle of CO2 in the atmosphere is more than a hundred years. For the comparison, water vapor has the eight-day cycle.
Pessimistic predictions are based on the idea of a dynamic equilibrium between all components of the natural environment and the danger of its breaking. In particular, anthropogenic warming of the climate, the decrease (or even disappearance) of snow and ice masses in high latitudes and at the poles of the Earth will significantly weaken the meridional atmospheric circulation and, as a consequence, lead to the moistening of the continents. Over the past 250-300 years, the level of the World Ocean has increased by an average of 1 mm per year.
Indicate in your effects of global warming essay that the most significant scale of predicted changes should be observed in the Arctic and Subarctic. Degradation of permafrost and ice rocks can occur in these zones. All cities, towns, and communications built on such territories are threatened with destruction.
There are all sorts of reasons to believe that radical climatic shifts and the melting of glaciers will be accompanied by a violation of the processes in the depths of the earth. Due to the redistribution of water masses from the poles to low latitudes, the Earth's rotation speed will slow down by a negligible amount. Nevertheless, this should cause a change in its shape. The flattening of the Earth will somewhat decrease. In the middle and low latitudes, compressive stresses should increase.
Will such impulses stimulate volcanism and earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific belt, the Mediterranean, and other similar areas? If in connection with the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, the level of ocean water will grow rapidly by 5-7 m, this may be enough to activate seismic volcanic processes in the most "sensitive" areas.
Flooding of the continental edges, changing the geography of their wet and arid zones will also affect the underground "hydrosphere". Will not the uplift and lowering of the earth's crust in the zones of growth and reduction of natural water horizons be accompanied by the seismic activity? The available data on anthropogenic subsidence and uplifts of the earth's surface exciting seismicity indicate the probability of such events.
The dynamic balance between the earth's shells that is maintained by slow-moving geological and geographic processes can be disastrously disrupted for hundreds of years. Such a violation will undoubtedly cause great damage to the world economy, although the technical genius of mankind should be able to resist it. Therefore, the measures need to be taken to counteract the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and provide safety for the biosphere and humanity. That’s why the consideration of climate change paper topics by scientists and students is so important.
Given the data collected from all over the world and the results of the UN Commission's studies, the average temperature may rise by 1.4-1.8 degrees Celsius in this century. The level of the World Ocean will increase by 10 cm, jeopardizing the countries that are situated low in comparison with the sea level.
Given the influence of mankind on the environment, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) insists on increasing the number of observations to create a more complete picture of global warming.
Your global warming persuasive essay should be based on information provided by reputable researchers and organizations. The United Nations has great influence in various parts of the world. So you have all reasons to take the opinion of UN experts into account. Conclusions of specialists are disappointing: negative results of warming will be felt almost everywhere.
For most of Europe, the threat of floods will increase significantly. The glaciers of the Alps and large areas of permafrost will begin to melt and completely disappear by the end of this century. Climate change will have a positive impact on the crops harvested in Northern Europe. But the almost equally negative effect will be observed in the agriculture of Southern Europe. This area will suffer from constant droughts in the 21st century.
In Asia, a situation will be much worse. High temperatures, droughts, floods and soil erosion will cause irrecoverable damage to the agriculture of many local countries. A rise in sea level and strong tropical cyclones will force tens of millions of people to move away from the sea shores.
Not the better situation will develop in Africa. Crop yields will seriously fall, the amount of available drinking water will decrease. There will be less precipitation, especially in the south, north, and west of the continent. This will force the emergence of new desert areas. Human settlements in Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Egypt and along the southeast coast of Africa will suffer from rising sea level and coastal erosion. Epidemics of infectious diseases spread by insects such as mosquitoes will occur.
In North America and Australia, the picture will not be so unambiguously bad. Some regions will benefit from warming because agriculture will become more profitable there.
In all other cases, the list of disasters includes floods, droughts, and epidemics. There will be less rain on the planet, more deserts and storms. In a few years, we all run the risk of getting into an unfamiliar and frightening world in which the threat of pernicious infections will hang over mankind. The warm and humid climate that will form on the planet over the next 20 years will help dangerous diseases such as malaria or Dengue fever (already presenting a serious threat for humanity) to conquer new frontiers.
The small island states will suffer the most. Developing countries will find it particularly difficult to adapt to changing conditions. Some positive effects are also expected: increased timber production, large grain yields in such regions of the world as Southeast Asia and fewer frost deaths during the winter.
Scientists warn that predicted climate change could potentially lead to large-scale and irreversible transformations: a slowdown in the supply of warm water to the North Atlantic, a rapid melting of ice in Greenland and western Antarctica, an increase in the proportion of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere of the Earth.
The UN report is the most detailed and serious work considering the consequences of global warming. So you can safely use it as a basis for a climate change research paper. The UN experts claim that the signs of alarming processes are already obvious:
- The ice cover of the Arctic decreased by 10-15%.
- Between the mid-1950s and the early 1970s, ice on the Antarctic coast retreated south by 2.8 degrees longitude.
- The forests of Alaska are heading north - 100 kilometers with an average temperature increase of one degree Celsius.
- The ice cover of lakes and rivers in the middle and upper longitudes of the Northern Hemisphere is now held for 2 weeks less than in 1850.
- In Europe, some mountain plants migrate upward at a speed of 1-4 meters per every decade.
- The season of garden plants growth increased by 11 days in Europe.
- Migratory birds fly north earlier and stay there longer.
Ways for solving the greenhouse effect problem to highlight in essays on global warming
Your how to prevent global warming essay should contain specific proposals that will help mankind avoid the impending danger. The main measure to prevent climate changes can be formulated as follows: to find a new type of fuel or to change the technology of using current fuels. This means that humanity needs:
- to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially coal and oil which emit 60% more carbon dioxide per unit of produced energy than any other fossil fuel;
- to use special substances (filters, catalysts) to remove carbon dioxide from the automobile exhausts, emissions of smoke pipes of coal-burning power plants and factory furnaces;
- to create more efficient heating and cooling systems in new houses;
- to increase the use of solar, wind and geothermal energy;
- to significantly slow down deforestation and degradation of natural territories;
- to remove storage tanks for hazardous substances from the coastal areas;
- to expand the area of existing reserves and parks;
- to create laws preventing global warming;
- to identify the causes of climate change, monitor them and eliminate their consequences.
You can choose the measures which are the most effective in your opinion and list them in a global warming conclusion paragraph. It’s good if final words of essay serve as a call for action.
Protection of the atmosphere
The protection of the atmosphere from the over-saturation with carbon dioxide is one of the acutest environment research paper topics. The slowdown of global warming depends on the maintaining of correct air composition.
The nature defense should include the fight against pollution, especially industrial, as well as from vehicles and other sources. The observations can't be conducted only for setting the tasks. They must indicate ways to improve the existing situation.
Thus, this research area shouldn't passively comment on the current state of the environment and make predictions based on the data provided by the "polluters" themselves. It should develop concepts, intermediate and long-term plans as well as specific programs aimed at redirection of adverse course of events using local tactics and a national strategy.
The Solution of a global warming essay should be concentrated on the integrated practices. Protection of the atmosphere can't be successful with unilateral decisions and half-measures. The best results can be obtained only with an objective, multifaceted approach to determining the causes and sources of pollution, realistic possibilities for limiting the harmful emissions.
In urban and industrial conglomerates where there are significant concentrations of small and large pollutants, only an integrated approach based on specific constraints, a combination of the optimal economic and technological conditions can lead to an acceptable content of the atmospheric air.
Proceeding from these provisions, an independent source of information is needed that would have data not only on the degree of air pollution but also on the types of technological and administrative measures. An objective assessment allows creating real plans and long-term forecasts for the worst and most favorable circumstances, and forms a solid basis for the development and strengthening of an atmosphere protection program.
The most polluted part of any city is its center. And the main polluter is road transport. The car can be called a chemical factory on wheels. The share of vehicles' emissions accounts for 60% of all harmful substances in the urban air. Exhaust fumes from autos are a mix of about 200 substances. They contain hydrocarbons (unburned or incompletely burnt fuel components) whose share sharply increases if the car works with the low turnovers or at the moment of speed increase at the start, i.е. during a traffic jam or with a red signal.
There are several ways to deal with the problem of exhaust gases:
- technical perfection of engines, fuel equipment, electronic fuel supply systems;
- improving fuel quality, reducing the content of toxic substances in exhaust gases as a result of the use of fuel afterburners, catalysts;
- use of alternative fuels.
The exhaust gases of vehicles can be rendered harmless by means of special devices in the car engine exhaust system called neutralizers:
- Flame neutralizer is a device for neutralizing the exhaust gases by afterburning in an open flame.
- Thermal neutralizer is a heat-saving device for neutralization of exhaust gases by the method of flameless combustion.
- Liquid neutralizer is a device for neutralizing exhaust gases by chemical connection with liquid reagents.
Ideas of scientists
Proposals for solving the problem of climate change from leading scientists are sometimes fantastic. But experts consider all ideas seriously because they can come in handy sooner or later. You may describe some of the theories below in your environmental pollution and global warming essay.
Today, the Earth absorbs 70% of all radiation received from the Sun. Therefore, there is a need to reduce this figure. Astronomer Roger Ancel suggested placing around the Earth millions of lenses with a diameter of 60 cm and weighing several grams to reflect the sun rays. It should be noted that the reduction in solar illumination by 1.6% compensates for the temperature increase by 1.75 Kelvin (3 degrees Fahrenheit). The effect of light scattering on the temperature is observed. For example, the temperature drops during the eruption of volcanoes when a huge mass of particles enters the atmosphere.
According to another similar idea (an article in the journal Acta Astronautica), it is proposed to create a ring of small particles or spaceships around the Earth to obscure the tropics and thereby to soften the climate. Reflective particles can be taken from mining zones on Earth, Moon or asteroids.
The cost of these projects can be prohibitive: $ 500 billion for special spacecraft and from $ 6 to $ 200 trillion in the case of particles.
Climatologist Wallace Broker proposed to scatter the sulfur in the stratosphere at an altitude of more than 15 km with the help of balls and airplanes. The fractions will stay at this level for a year or two. This project is estimated at $ 50 billion.
It is also proposed to produce salted steam with the help of devices that will turn the seawater into real clouds saturated with sodium chloride.
There is an idea to create artificial floating islands with a mirroring surface in the sea zones or to cover some desert regions with light colored plastic materials to reflect solar radiation penetrating to the Earth.
The proposal to disperse over the ocean the substances that contribute to the growth of water plants absorbing large amounts of carbon dioxide was already implemented in some areas of Antarctica.
The famous British astrophysicist Stephen Hawking believed that the survival of the human race depends on our ability to find new homes elsewhere in the universe because the risk of destruction of living beings in a result of global warming is skyrocketing. He claimed that people could have a permanent base on the Moon in 20 years and a colony on Mars in the next four decades.
Useful tips for writing the research paper on global warming
Considering the qualitative climate change research paper example, you will definitely notice that the academic text is written according to specific rules. There is a clear structure which makes the presentation of thoughts clear.
The essay is a prose composition of a small volume. The purpose of this paper is to express thoughts and ideas of the author on a particular topic. For example, you can write an essay on an article, on a work, or even about yourself. The content can be free and do not pretend to an exhaustive interpretation of the theme.
However, when it comes to climate change, only guesses and reasoning will not be enough. You must provide at least a few proved facts and reliable sources. But if to compare with the abstract or coursework, you still have some degree of freedom.
Let's say at once: a template approach is rare and often unacceptable. Typically, you need to strain your brains to write an essay. And it's wonderful, dear friends! Agree that it's pleasant to show creativity and your vision of the problem.
Tip 1: read the essays of other authors
Find the papers with a similar global warming essay title and study them carefully. This will help you develop own literary manner. After all, an essay is not a dictation and its writing requires a sense of style. According to the opinion of specialists, the good presentation can be characterized as emotional, expressive, and artistic.
Tip 2: study the literature on the given topic
We have already said that the essay is a creative work which involves the description of own reflections on a certain topic. But such academic papers are addressed not to the novice but to the reader who get a minimal idea of the question under consideration. Otherwise, you would just drown in the details when writing. Therefore, in order to tell about something qualitatively, one should have knowledge on the relevant area.
Tip 3: think out the structure and the climate change essay outline
Such work can have an arbitrary framework. And the only formal rule is the presence of the heading. Nevertheless, the most popular structure of the essay is as follows:
- Title. It’s not a problem to find good global warming essay titles since this problem has already been considered by many authors. However, much better if the heading is unique. Many students compile the text relying on the title although experts recommend acting in the opposite direction. You can come up with it after writing the paper when it will be possible to accurately highlight the key idea.
- Global warming essay introduction. From this part depends whether the reader will study the remaining text. It should be bright, compact, catchy, touch on actual problems and phenomena.
- Next, you’ll have to formulate theses and arguments for each item of a global warming research paper outline. A thesis is the author's own idea. An argument is its rationale.
- Conclusion of a global warming essay. It’s needed to sum up the answers to all the questions asked in the text and prove the statement that you have put forward at the beginning.
- Literature. If you have used texts of international treaties, conferences or scientific sources, the examiner should be aware of this. Compile a list at the end of the paper.
If you are looking for a cliché on how to write an essay, here it is. However, note that you can write all the parts in a random order. For example, it’s quite normal to compile an introduction paragraph for a global warming essay after the main block with theses and arguments. It should be obvious that in this case you first need to create a rough draft of the paper and rewrite it to a clean copy when you are completely satisfied with the written content.
Tip 4: Do not "overload" the essay
We perfectly understand that everyone has his own style but too long constructions can negatively affect the evaluation of the work. Hook for global warming essay must consist of only a few sentences. The presentation of arguments also should not be burdened with superfluous text.
Tip 5: be honest with readers
You do not have to invent or attribute the thoughts of other people to yourself. Write naturally and your research will only benefit from this.
Work on essays promotes the development of creative thinking, the ability to express own opinion. Just practice. This will help you to learn how to formulate words correctly, to highlight cause-effect relationships and support theses with appropriate arguments and examples from life. Good luck!