Vancouver style manual

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Paper writing is a way to explain theories, thoughts, and ideas, previously debated in the scientific studies, literature, or other sources. When composing a paper, it is necessary to comprehend the significance of structured and correct citation and referencing.

Today, Vancouver writing style is the one most commonly applied when dealing with medical publications. There are several features to keep in mind:

  • The numerical method of citation is among the main characteristics here. Therefore, a writer is expected to provide numeric references in the body of the text, and also form a bibliography list, placing it at the end of the paper.
  • The Vancouver style referencing guide was invented in the year of 1978 during the meeting of medical journal editors in Canada. In such a way, a numerical nature of citation can be explained by specific needs of medical writing.
  • The style is widely applied in research and scientific journals, but one should keep in mind that it is not the easiest guide when completing academic assignments in more theoretical subjects.

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries together with the “Vancouver style formating recommendations” are presented below.

In-text Citations in Vancouver Style

Indicating a Single Reference:

Example 1: Scholtz 2 has argued that…

Example 2: The largest lesion in the first study was 8 cm. 13

  • Every single reference has its unique number according to the order of appearance in the body of text. These numbers have to be indicated in superscript (see the example 1).
  • In case a writer uses the citation several times (for example, when dealing with Vancouver creative writing), the same number is applied. Citation numbers are put after periods and commas but before semi-colons and colons.
  • Do not use exact wording from sources when paraphrasing. When providing the quote from the source, it is better to use double quotation marks. Point out the page number in parenthesis after the citation number as shown below.

Example 3: "The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data,' provides an opportunity for future personalized medical programs that will significantly improve patient care." 1 (p433)

Citing Multiple References

When writing the Vancouver style paper, you may need to cite several references simultaneously. When this occurs, all non-inclusive numbers of citations are separated by commas and all inclusive citation numbers with a hyphen. For instance, in case you need to reference numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, and 15 it should show as 6 – 9, 15.

Example 4: Several recent studies 6 – 9, 15 have suggested that…

The Vancouver Style In-text Citation for Quoted Passages

  • In the majority of cases, the given style does not suppose the use of direct quotations. Nevertheless, if it is important to use such quotation in the text, put double quotation marks around the borrowed lines. Add the page number in parenthesis (the exact page where this direct quotation was taken from) together with the citation number (see Example 3).
  • Do not forget to apply ellipsis to point out that part of the quotation was left out.
  • In order to present a long quotation efficiently, precede it with a full sentence. This rule is suitable for all types of writing, even for technical writing Vancouver style.

Example 5: Nowadays, many scientists 5 (p438) agree that:

“With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers double approximately every two years. Although cloud solutions from different companies have been used, several challenges remain, particularly related to the security and privacy of personal medical and scientific data.”

Formatting the Vancouver Reference List

What is Vancouver style referencing? To make this matter clearer, it is first important to learn how to cope with formatting a reference list.

  • Page formatting: One should start composing the list on a separate page; here, only complete citations should be provided for all the referenced material. Remember to ask questions to gain clarity concerning the title of the given list because it may vary often. Your instructor or professor has to be able to assist you, should it be a need for sample paper in Vancouver style or just an example of a single reference.
  • Organizing entries: One should provide the complete citations of all sources applied in the body of the text. Entries have to be arranged numerically in the same order they emerge in the text, bypassing alphabetization. Consequently, a referenced source by Whisnant may turn out to be the first one in the list.
  • Names of Authors: Whether or not you are engaged in Vancouver style referencing online, list all names as they appear in the reference material. Displace names of authors (placing the surname first) and turn first names and middle names into initials. As a result, you will have at least two initials after each surname. Indicate all names of authors and separate each name with a comma and space (for example: Winters T, Rogers B, Evans J, Liu H, Preiser J, Krinsley JS, et al.). Finish providing the information about an author with a period.
  • Title: When referencing titles in paper Vancouver style, apply an appropriate type for the magazine, article, journal, and book titles. You need to capitalize only abbreviations or the first word of any proper nouns and article titles.
  • Page numbers: Provide the inclusive pages numbers if needed. Try not to repeat them unless they are followed by letters (for instance, 224-226 turns into 224-6, but 46 B – 49 B will do).
  • Web address: If one uses an online source, then a web address where the source is located should be included. The web address has to be followed by a period in case a slash follows URL. In any other way, avoid following the web address with punctuation.

Vancouver Citation Format Template

Citing Books

General guidelines:

  • Provide initials of first name(s) of an author only.
  • There is no punctuation between initials (for example AM for Anna Maria).
  • If a book has more than one author, present author’s name in the same order it appears on the title page.
  • Capitalize only the first letter of the title.
  • “Year of publication” is indicated for the edition that has been used.
  • "Place of publication" = city + country for non-US publications and city + state abbreviation for the US publications.
  • “Publisher” means the name of the publishing company.

How to cite a book in Vancouver style? Here is the example for a single author:

Author Last Name Initials. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Heller T. Eating disorders: a handbook for teens, families, and teachers. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland & Co.; 2003.

Books with two to six authors:

Authors Last name Initials. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Madden R, Hogan T. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1997.

Book with an editor:

Editor (s) Last Name Initials, editor (s). Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

The Vancouver style book reference example: Kastenbaum R, editor. Encyclopedia of adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press; 1993.

Chapter in an edited book:

Author (s) Last name Initials. The title of the chapter. In: Editor (s) Last Name Initials, editors. The title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Page numbers.

Blaxter M. Social class and health inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel J, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. London: Academic Press, 1976; p. 369 – 372.

Note that you can use the same guidelines if you do not know how to cite textbooks using Vancouver style. In case you still have some doubts, it is better to address the official Vancouver guide.

Citing Journals and Newspapers

When writing paper Vancouver style, one may need to cite journal articles or journals. Here are the general format guidelines:

  • Author’s Name: If there is no author, type the article’s name first.
  • The title of the Article: After you have indicated the article's title, put [Internet] to point out the web-based nature of the article.
  • The title of the Newspaper: Do not remove or abbreviate any words here. In case there are different editions, put the edition in parenthesis (3 rd Ed.).
  • Date: Include the date cited in square brackets right after the date of publication.
  • Section: Reduce Section to Sect. and provide the section name or number. If you cannot find one, end the section of date with a colon and add the location of the page (i.e., 2007 July 17:2).
  • Column: Reduce column to col., following it with a column where the article starts. This data has to be put in parenthesis and followed with a period.
  • Web address: Add a web address where one can find a particular article.

Author (s) last name Initials. Article’s title. Abbreviated journal’s title. Year month day of publication; volume number (issue number): numbers of pages.

Lobach DF. Clinical informatics: supporting the use of evidence in practice and relevance to physical therapy education. J Phyl Ther Educ. 2004; 18 (3): 24-34.

E-journal article:

Author (s) last name Initials. Article’s title. Abbreviation of journal title [Internet]. Year month day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; Volume (Issue): Pages. Available from: URL

Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Hsu CL, Bolandzadeh N. Emerging concept: ‘central benefit model’ of exercise in falls prevention. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jun 17]; 47 (2): 115-117. Epub 2012 Apr 20. Available from the British Journal of Sports Medicine: http://bjsm.bmj.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/content/47/2/115.full?sid=079849b3a-9936-4e23-a4ad-b06b1e3ff51b

Print newspaper article:

Author (s) last name Initials. The title of the article. Newspaper. Year Month Day of publication: Section. (Column).

The Vancouver style referencing example:

Smith T. Packing on the pounds adds year: the study of Canadian adults says underweight seniors are at risk. Edmonton Journal (Final. Ed.). 2009 Jun 24; Sect. A:7 (col.1).

Journal article from library database

General guidelines:

  • Add all authors and editors.
  • Author’s name has to be reversed; one has to apply initials for first and middle names. There is no comma after last name or any periods between initials.
  • In this case, the first word of the title and proper nouns are capitalized. One does not have to capitalize the first word of the subtitle.
  • Abbreviate the title of the journal according to the reference guidelines for Vancouver style.
  • Abbreviate month by means of using the month’s first three letters.
  • Avoid repeating numbers of pages.
  • When URL ends with a slash, it is necessary to add a period.
  • Persistent URL should be used for articles from the library databases.
  • In addition, one can use the Vancouver style citation maker online in order to be sure of the correctness of citations.

Author. Article's title. Abbreviated title of the journal [Internet]. Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; volume number (issue number): page numbers. Available from: URL

Bakhos LL, Lockhart GR, Myers R, Linakis JG. Emergency department visits for concussion in young child athletes. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Dec 3]; 126 (3): 550-6. Available from: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cqi/reprint/126/3/e550 DOI: 10.1542/peds.

Newspaper article from library database

General guidelines:

  • Add all editors and authors.
  • Name of the author should be reversed; one has to apply initials for first and middle names. There is no comma after the last name or any periods between initials.
  • Only the title’s first word and proper nouns are capitalized. One should not capitalize the subtitle’s first word.
  • Abbreviate month using the month’s first three letters.
  • Names of newspapers should not be abbreviated.
  • Only the first page number of the article is added.
  • When URL ends with a slash, add period. If it does not, there is no need to add a period.

Author. The title of the article. Newspaper Title [Internet]. (Edition). Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; Sect. Location. Available from: URL

The Vancouver style bibliography example for the newspaper article:

Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online]. 2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: Factiva. http://global.factiva.com.au

Electronic book from library database

General guidelines:

  • Cite all editors and authors.
  • Name of the author should be reversed; one has to apply initials for first and middle names. There is no comma after last name or any periods between initials.
  • Only the title’s first word and proper nouns are capitalized. One should not capitalize the subtitle’s first word.
  • Add country or state after the city of publication in case the city is not widely known.
  • If it is the first edition, do not include this information.

You may use the Vancouver style bibliography maker to make the process of citing easier.

Author (s). Book’s title [Internet]. Edition. City of publication: Publisher; Year of publication [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL

Salley K. Physical medicine and rehabilitation [Internet]. New Delhi: World Technologies; 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 17]. Available from EBSCOhost eBook Collection: http://search.ebscohost.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=40886964&site=ehost-live

If you are going to learn how to cite in Vancouver style, remember that titles of journals are referenced according to their abbreviated forms from the National Library of Medicine.

Website

General guidelines:

  • All editors and authors should be referenced. If there is no editor or author for citing a website in Vancouver style, start with the website title.
  • You can address to the website of the National Library of Medicine if you want to determine copyright/publication date, publisher, or place of publication.

Author (s). The title of the website [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher; Publication/copyright date (s) [updated Year Month Day; cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL

The Vancouver reference style website example:

American Medical Association. Medical leaders urge collection of demographic information as a step toward ending health care disparities [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2011 [updated 2011 April 28; cited 2011 May 4th]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/medical-leaders-urge-collection-demographic-ap28.page

Component of a Website

As a rule, the document or webpage can turn out to be unnumbered. When this occurs, add “about” in the pagination statement, indicating the number of pages and screens.

The title of homepage [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher; Publication/Copyright date. The title of the document or webpage; Year Month Day of publication of document or webpage [cited Year Month Day]; [pagination of document or webpage]. Available from: URL

The Vancouver style of writing references example:

Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Barton ACT: AMA; c 1995-2012. Junior doctors and medical students call for an urgent solution to medical training crisis; 2012 Oct 22 [cited 2012 Nov 5]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ama.com.au/media/junior-doctors-and-medical-students-call-urgent-solution-medical-training-crisis-oct22

Entire blog

Author (s). The title of the blog [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher. Year Month Day of publication or blog's copyright – [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL

The Vancouver style citations example for the blog:

See M. The 3 tiers of censorship in Singapore [Internet]. Singapore Rebel: Speak truth unto power. 2014 [cited 12 July 2014]. Available from: http://singaporerebel.blogspot.sg/2009/11/3-tiers-of-censorship-in-singapore-jul12.html

Blog entry

Author (s). The title of the blog entry. Year Month Day of blog entry [cited Year Month Day]. In: Title of blog [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher, Year Month Day of copyright or blog –. [entry blog pagination]. Available from: URL

The Vancouver style format example for an entry:

Flower R. How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality. Pick the brain [blog on the Internet]; 2015, Jun 1 [cited 2015 Jun 8]. Available from: http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/now-a-simple-formula-for-resolving-problemmms-and-conflict-can-change-your-reality/.

Web images:

Organization or author. Title [Image on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; date of publication [date cited]. Available from: URL

Ratcliff T. Our Night Under The Stars [Internet]. 2014 [cited 29 September 2014]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckinnncustoms/4771036933/in/photostream/

Vancouver Style Title Page Example

Since Vancouver style is applied when you submit papers to medical journals, the Vancouver style cover page should follow strict guidelines. First of all, center the paper’s title. Having done this, indicate credentials and the name of the author. The next details to point out are the institution and the department. After this, one needs to place the contact information. Finally, it is significant to indicate the exact word count.

Dangerous Genetics:

Propensity of Huntington’s Disease in Families, and on Examination of its Occurrence in Western Europeans

(skip a few lines here)

Daniel Brown, M. D.

Biology Department

University of Michigan

1234 S. Michigan Ave.

Mary Harbor, MI 48222

(734) 555-1000

(skip a line)

Wd Count: 21 000

Reference Page Example

References

  • 1. Smith T. Packing on the pounds adds year: a study of Canadian adults says underweight seniors are at risk. Edmonton Journal (Final. Ed.). 2009 Jun 24; Sect. A: 7 (col.1).

  • 2. Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online]. 2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: Factiva. http://globalll.factiva.com

  • 3. Madden R, Hogan T. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1997.

  • 4. Kastenbaum R, editor. Encyclopedia of adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press; 1993.

  • 5. Heller T. Eating disorders: a handbook for teens, families, and teachers. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland & Co.; 2003

If there is any specific source you need to cite, and it was not mentioned here, you are welcome to search for the guidelines on this exact type of source, for example, on citing a review in Vancouver style, in order to get a specific info from a credible website. Also, you can simply look through the official guide to find the exact rule to follow.

Vancouver Resume Writing Style

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