15th Nov 2018
Paper writing is a way to explain theories, thoughts, and ideas, previously debated in the scientific studies, literature, or other sources. When composing a paper, it is necessary to comprehend the significance of structured and correct citation and referencing.
Today, Vancouver writing style is the one most commonly applied when dealing with medical publications. There are several features to keep in mind:
Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries together with the “Vancouver style formating recommendations” are presented below.
Indicating a Single Reference:
Example 1: Scholtz 2 has argued that…
Example 2: The largest lesion in the first study was 8 cm. 13
Example 3: "The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data,' provides an opportunity for future personalized medical programs that will significantly improve patient care." 1 (p433)
Citing Multiple References
When writing the Vancouver style paper, you may need to cite several references simultaneously. When this occurs, all non-inclusive numbers of citations are separated by commas and all inclusive citation numbers with a hyphen. For instance, in case you need to reference numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, and 15 it should show as 6 – 9, 15.
Example 4: Several recent studies 6 – 9, 15 have suggested that…
The Vancouver Style In-text Citation for Quoted Passages
Example 5: Nowadays, many scientists 5 (p438) agree that:
“With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers double approximately every two years. Although cloud solutions from different companies have been used, several challenges remain, particularly related to the security and privacy of personal medical and scientific data.”
What is Vancouver style referencing? To make this matter clearer, it is first important to learn how to cope with formatting a reference list.
How to cite a book in Vancouver style? Here is the example for a single author:
Author Last Name Initials. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Heller T. Eating disorders: a handbook for teens, families, and teachers. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland & Co.; 2003.
Books with two to six authors:
Authors Last name Initials. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Madden R, Hogan T. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1997.
Book with an editor:
Editor (s) Last Name Initials, editor (s). Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
The Vancouver style book reference example: Kastenbaum R, editor. Encyclopedia of adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press; 1993.
Chapter in an edited book:
Author (s) Last name Initials. The title of the chapter. In: Editor (s) Last Name Initials, editors. The title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Page numbers.
Blaxter M. Social class and health inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel J, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. London: Academic Press, 1976; p. 369 – 372.
Note that you can use the same guidelines if you do not know how to cite textbooks using Vancouver style. In case you still have some doubts, it is better to address the official Vancouver guide.
Citing Journals and Newspapers
When writing paper Vancouver style, one may need to cite journal articles or journals. Here are the general format guidelines:
Author (s) last name Initials. Article’s title. Abbreviated journal’s title. Year month day of publication; volume number (issue number): numbers of pages.
Lobach DF. Clinical informatics: supporting the use of evidence in practice and relevance to physical therapy education. J Phyl Ther Educ. 2004; 18 (3): 24-34.
Author (s) last name Initials. Article’s title. Abbreviation of journal title [Internet]. Year month day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; Volume (Issue): Pages. Available from: URL
Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Hsu CL, Bolandzadeh N. Emerging concept: ‘central benefit model’ of exercise in falls prevention. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jun 17]; 47 (2): 115-117. Epub 2012 Apr 20. Available from the British Journal of Sports Medicine: http://bjsm.bmj.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/content/47/2/115.full?sid=079849b3a-9936-4e23-a4ad-b06b1e3ff51b
Print newspaper article:
Author (s) last name Initials. The title of the article. Newspaper. Year Month Day of publication: Section. (Column).
The Vancouver style referencing example:
Smith T. Packing on the pounds adds year: the study of Canadian adults says underweight seniors are at risk. Edmonton Journal (Final. Ed.). 2009 Jun 24; Sect. A:7 (col.1).
Journal article from library database
Author. Article's title. Abbreviated title of the journal [Internet]. Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; volume number (issue number): page numbers. Available from: URL
Bakhos LL, Lockhart GR, Myers R, Linakis JG. Emergency department visits for concussion in young child athletes. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Dec 3]; 126 (3): 550-6. Available from: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cqi/reprint/126/3/e550 DOI: 10.1542/peds.
Newspaper article from library database
Author. The title of the article. Newspaper Title [Internet]. (Edition). Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; Sect. Location. Available from: URL
The Vancouver style bibliography example for the newspaper article:
Dearne K. Dispensing with the chemist. The Australian [newspaper online]. 2005 Jun 14 [cited 2005 Jun 30]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: Factiva. http://global.factiva.com.au
Electronic book from library database
You may use the Vancouver style bibliography maker to make the process of citing easier.
Author (s). Book’s title [Internet]. Edition. City of publication: Publisher; Year of publication [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL
Salley K. Physical medicine and rehabilitation [Internet]. New Delhi: World Technologies; 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 17]. Available from EBSCOhost eBook Collection: http://search.ebscohost.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=40886964&site=ehost-live
If you are going to learn how to cite in Vancouver style, remember that titles of journals are referenced according to their abbreviated forms from the National Library of Medicine.
Author (s). The title of the website [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher; Publication/copyright date (s) [updated Year Month Day; cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL
The Vancouver reference style website example:
American Medical Association. Medical leaders urge collection of demographic information as a step toward ending health care disparities [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2011 [updated 2011 April 28; cited 2011 May 4th]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/medical-leaders-urge-collection-demographic-ap28.page
Component of a Website
As a rule, the document or webpage can turn out to be unnumbered. When this occurs, add “about” in the pagination statement, indicating the number of pages and screens.
The title of homepage [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher; Publication/Copyright date. The title of the document or webpage; Year Month Day of publication of document or webpage [cited Year Month Day]; [pagination of document or webpage]. Available from: URL
The Vancouver style of writing references example:
Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Barton ACT: AMA; c 1995-2012. Junior doctors and medical students call for an urgent solution to medical training crisis; 2012 Oct 22 [cited 2012 Nov 5]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ama.com.au/media/junior-doctors-and-medical-students-call-urgent-solution-medical-training-crisis-oct22
Author (s). The title of the blog [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher. Year Month Day of publication or blog's copyright – [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL
The Vancouver style citations example for the blog:
See M. The 3 tiers of censorship in Singapore [Internet]. Singapore Rebel: Speak truth unto power. 2014 [cited 12 July 2014]. Available from: http://singaporerebel.blogspot.sg/2009/11/3-tiers-of-censorship-in-singapore-jul12.html
Author (s). The title of the blog entry. Year Month Day of blog entry [cited Year Month Day]. In: Title of blog [Internet]. City of publication: Publisher, Year Month Day of copyright or blog –. [entry blog pagination]. Available from: URL
The Vancouver style format example for an entry:
Flower R. How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality. Pick the brain [blog on the Internet]; 2015, Jun 1 [cited 2015 Jun 8]. Available from: http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/now-a-simple-formula-for-resolving-problemmms-and-conflict-can-change-your-reality/.
Organization or author. Title [Image on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; date of publication [date cited]. Available from: URL
Ratcliff T. Our Night Under The Stars [Internet]. 2014 [cited 29 September 2014]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckinnncustoms/4771036933/in/photostream/
Since Vancouver style is applied when you submit papers to medical journals, the Vancouver style cover page should follow strict guidelines. First of all, center the paper’s title. Having done this, indicate credentials and the name of the author. The next details to point out are the institution and the department. After this, one needs to place the contact information. Finally, it is significant to indicate the exact word count.
Propensity of Huntington’s Disease in Families, and on Examination of its Occurrence in Western Europeans
(skip a few lines here)
Daniel Brown, M. D.
University of Michigan
1234 S. Michigan Ave.
Mary Harbor, MI 48222
(skip a line)
Wd Count: 21 000
If there is any specific source you need to cite, and it was not mentioned here, you are welcome to search for the guidelines on this exact type of source, for example, on citing a review in Vancouver style, in order to get a specific info from a credible website. Also, you can simply look through the official guide to find the exact rule to follow.
Regardless of the fact that the given style is used mainly in the sphere of medicine, it is possible to apply it in other writing assignments. It can be, on the one hand, used as a resume writing style for medical employees. However, not all people, despite the fact they are real professionals in the sphere and love their job, can cope with such an assignment as writing a resume. Taking into account that it may be rather hard to do, it is high time to consider other options. In this case, think about finding a “resume writing service Vancouver.”
On the other hand, imagine that you are a doctor who wants to set up a private health care facility. How can you do that in the most efficient way? Of course, you should write a well-thought-out business plan. At this stage, some people may face difficulties connected with a correct formatting of the paper, etc. Whether or not you face such problems, it can become helpful to consider the “business plan writing services Vancouver.” In any case, specialists can always assist you if something is unclear.
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