Gender Wage Gap in Turkey and Related Theories – Part 5


1.6: Non-Economic Feminist Theory

Unlike the previous theories discussed by us. There also a non-economic feminist theory. Unlike the previously discussed theories. The ‘’Non-Economic Feminist Theory’’ relies on the feminist economics or gender based theory. The theory was primarily a result of criticism of previously discussed theories as such theories were criticized on the basis that those theories were only based on discussion over the labor market but did not discussed the negative influences of unequal opportunities in the process of education. In other words. The feminist economic theory is discussed on the prejudice and the values, which are not related to the labor market but still leads to gender wage differences.

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The theory asserts that the interaction of both the genders at the economic. Social and cultural factors in any state causes to the gender inequality. Thus. This theory manifests the distinction of sex and gender concepts and is more profound on the female differential in accordance to the male dominance in the society or that the females are just forced to engage in secondary roles as house holding and the opportunities in the primary sector are never shared with them.

Thus. The basic idea of feministic economics is that the vertically stratification originates from the ‘glass-ceiling’. Thus. These ‘glass-ceilings’ expresses the obstacles in the life of a women and proves to be the obstacles blocking the female progress regardless of their success.

1.7: Relating Turkey Wage Difference with Human Capital Approach and Statistical Theory

The modern theory of human capital is a reflection of the re-orientation of economic science from the problems of labor to the problem of creating a new quality labor force in the conditions of information revolution. In other words. This theory explains that increasing productivity and role of human being in the current labor market and this increasing productivity is allowing the labor force to provide his/her employer with dynamic growth and sustainable profits. As a result. The modern human capital approach provides a radical social-economic reforms creating new terms of cognition the process of labor and employment relations. However. With the experience of most of the developed countries. The emphasis of research has shifted from the problem of labor alienation into the studying of economic and social changing in employment relation to studying the problem of human capital.

The main core objective of this model is related to estimating the reason for the difference in human capital as the theory emphasis that the differences in human capital between men and women are generated from outside the labor market and their impact comes through the supply function. Such differences arises from biological or social factors. For instance. Women are biologically said to be weak than men and have the responsibility of taking care of their child and other household activities. Finally. Such factors results in low productivity and resultant low wages associated with them.

Please note that in my research paper over wage gap in turkey. Although most of my discussion is derived from the concept of human capital theory. Which consider that the wages above or below marginal product of labor are based solely on the worker productivity. But since in Turkey. Working women have easy and low cost access to childcare support primarily because of extended or joint family. Which is not a case in Europe or US state. Thus. In the case of Turkey. Human Capital approach will be para-phrased as the human capital approach will have lower significance as there is less or negligent reason for the Turkish Women to interrupt work even when they give birth to a child. (Serap. 2002).

Thus. In my theory, I will be using a combination from human capital theory and statistical discrimination theory. For human capital theory. Since the theory asserts that, the main determinant of the size of the marginal product of labor is based on worker productivity. I will focus on the differences in personal characteristics and preference of employees and this way the differences between wages of men and women can then be attributed to discrimination. Secondly for the statistical discrimination. Although the theory have limitations in the form that it does not rest on the moral feelings but this limitation is somehow turning more realistic and in favor of employees. Thus. The wage differentials adjusted for different abilities relating to productivity can be considered as a discrimination fact and surely attributed to discrimination. But the real wage gap what occurs as a real reason of discrimination argumentations. In my view. Shows up in case of statistical discrimination.

1.8: Female workforce in the working life

Before we move ahead and discuss the level of the female workforce in the working life, it will be advantageous both for the reader and me to give some statistical information related to female workforce in Turkey. As we have already emphasized in the previous discussion that different kinds of discriminations are influencing and strengthening each other and thus. The discriminatory instances related to employment, promotion, trainings etc. Which usually are faced by women workforce are paving the way for female workforce oriented wage discrimination. Following are the brief examples of kinds of discrimination being faced by female workforce:

  • Female Workforce do not get equal employment opportunities relating to Promotion, Education, Training, and Wages etc.
  • Female Workforce are psychologically concentrated to get employment where they do not need any qualitative labor force.
  • If the employer faces problems and if he is required to cut the headcount. female workforce are the first who suffers

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1.9: Theoretical Conclusion - Women are paid less than men

Finally. We have reached the conclusion of Chapter 1 and after discussing all the relevant academic literature findings and economic theories relating to labor market and analysis of gender wage gap. We find three main explanations about the reasons as why the female workforce are paid less:

First. It was the difference in human capital between men and women. Second- women are made to work on secondary jobs and this leads to particular concentration of men and women in pre-decided professions and positions in different branches of the economy. Third- the current discrimination of the female workforce in the labor market because of employer. Co-employee and consumers.

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